Vol 5 Issue 1
Jiajie Cheh and Mal-Kong Sia
This study aims to investigate the causes and effects of accidents at construction sites in Negeri Sembilan, one of the twelve states in Peninsular Malaysia. The objectives of the study are to investigate the factors causing accidents at construction sites, to assess the effects of accidents and to identify measures to reduce accidents in construction industry. 250 sets of self-administered questionnaires were posted to contractors for data collection. Based on the responses of 23 sets of completed questionnaires, the top five factors causing accidents are found to be the variable hazards at construction sites, poor site management, use of equipment without safety devices, failure to use personal protective equipment and poor jobsite inspection. The top four effects of accidents found are loss of productivity to company, loss of customer satisfaction, loss of future working ability to accident victims and loss of company image. The top two measures identified to prevent accidents are wearing of personal protective equipment and implementation of safety training programme. Workers were identified to be the main target of safety training programmes to ensure the use of personal protective equipment and safe working practices at construction sites. It is hoped that a lower accident rate could be achieved with the enforcement of preventive measures implemented at construction sites.
Puteri Nur Farah Naadia Bt Mohd Fauzi and Khairuddin Abdul Rashid
In the practice of insurance works in the Malaysian construction industry, details of construction works, liability of insurance coverage, risks, losses and compensation entitled for the insured upon the occurrence of insurable risks specified in Contractor’s All Risk (CAR) policies. Despite the practice of insurance contract for construction works in Malaysia where standard policy and agreement is applied by the parties, the practice of insurance assessment for compensation and reimbursement of construction works loss and damage specifically in Contractor’s All Risk (CAR) Takaful is based and relied on custom company-based or in-house reports by loss adjusters as experts. Hence, this paper seeks to identify current practice in assessing claims for construction works loss and damage in takaful specifically under Contractor’s All Risk (CAR) Takaful. Issues and variety of approached and methods used by insurers in making assessment for construction works loss and damage are identified through literature review and content analysis. The study provides comprehensive understanding of assessment of loss and damage for construction works and revealed there is lack of standardized industry practice particularly for the assessment of claims for construction works loss and damage due to absence of reliable and published guideline or framework. This paper is expected to produce a summary of takaful claim assessment methods for construction works loss and damage through synthesis of content analysis based on the review done. The outcome of the study suggest that further research is required in order to develop a standard framework of takaful claim for the assessment of construction works loss and damage in Contractor’s All Risk (CAR) Takaful.
Incomplete Contract: Its Characteristics, Implications And Its Presence In Private Finance Initiative (PFI) Contracts
Nur Syaimasyaza Bt. Mansor and Khairuddin Abdul Rashid
An incomplete contract (IC) is a contract that fails to state all the parties’ right and obligations in every future state of the world due to some constraints such as high transaction cost, bounded rationality, asymmetric information, and others. IC consequently expose the contracting parties to the risk of opportunistic behavior, haggling and disputes. Notwithstanding, IC can positively give the contracting parties flexibility to deal with uncertainty and change. Private Finance Initiative (PFI) contract also cannot avoid being incomplete. PFI involves long-term contract, complex structure of key players, and complicated profits structure. Consequently, most PFI contracts are incomplete. This paper is a part of an on-going research and through an extensive literature review and content analysis, it intends (1) to review the concept of incomplete contract; (2) to identify incomplete contract characteristics and its implication; and (3) to review the presence of PFI incomplete contract. The findings suggest that most contracts are incomplete to some degree and there are four IC characteristics found in this study. In addition, there are evidences of PFI incomplete contract, however, lack of studies had been done to investigate the specific provision that causes the contract to be incomplete.
Norhafizatullakmar Sulaiman, Nurul Syala Abdul Latip, Zumahiran Kamarudin
The ‘Green building’ concept is gaining importance in various forms of architecture and in different parts of the world. Although the concept is widely recognized and its movement arose in the late 20th century, this concept also surfaced and complemented the old traditional building design, including Malay traditional houses of Perak in the west of Peninsular Malaysia. The houses are unique dwelling forms especially those existed in the periods of 1800’s to 1930s. The physical aspects of ‘Green building’ concept also reflected on the house that concerns of socio-culture, utility, durability and comfort. This paper attempts to discuss the fundamental aspects of the house architecture that contribute to its green identity. Visual descriptive and interpretative analyses that were conducted on the selected houses indicated that a pattern of spatial layout and distribution of the structural components within the timber houses reflect its functional uses particularly for practical and visual comforts. Based on their visual attributes, the physical and practical nomenclatures of the houses are excellent indicator of both continuity of tradition and green concept in the timber-based structure made by local craftsmen that is appropriate for tropical climate like Malaysia. Perhaps, the challenge in present world is to continue the tradition and to encourage local craftsmen interest in documenting their perception of worldviews on traditional production while attempting to reinterpret the values in modern building, which in turn help reinforce the sense of green regional identity and simultaneously sustaining the uniqueness of old traditions.