Centre for Teaching Thinking

Centre for Teaching Thinking

Our Address : 
Centre For Teaching Thinking,
Kuliyyah of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia,
P.O. Box 10 50728, Kuala Lumpur
Email: ctt@iium.edu.my
Phone : (+603) 6421 5309
Handphone : 010-8235251 (Br Mohd Izzuddin)

About Centre for Teaching Thinking (CTT)

The Centre for Teaching Thinking (CTT) is established in 2014 as a consequence of the expansion of the roles and functions of the Centre For Philosophical Inquiry in Education (CPIE) which was founded in January 2006.  Upon expansion, the CTT now consists of three major units, namely, (1) Hikmah Pedagogy for Inquiry & Critical Thinking; (2) Creative Thinking; and (3) Thinking-based Learning.  The CTT is located on the 4th Floor of the Kulliyyah of Education Building, IIUM.

Vision To revive the spirit of philosophical inquiry, intellectual tradition and creativity as advocated by the Islamic World-view
Mission To become an excellent centre for the development and practice of Islamic philosophy education and creativity


The Centre aims to promote philosophy education, the inquiring and critical minds and to provide an opportunity for individuals (participants):

1. To understand and appreciate intellectual traditions, in particular Islamic and scientific thoughts

2. To understand and appreciate philosophy and its ‘use’;

3. To think critically, creatively and ethically so as to make wise judgement;

4.To experience ‘doing’ philosophy and being in the Community of Inquiry, that will foster the growth of shura or democratic processes;

5.To develop ethical understanding, deliberate over moral issues and to find meaning in experience.

Corporate Profile

Download Corporate Profile

Who are/were our clients?

  • Teachers of Tampin District held at Sekolah Kebangsaan Tampin April 2005
  • ADNI Islamic School: 12th – 13th April 2008; 2013; 2014.
  • Sekolah Rendah Islam (Seri) ABIM Sungai Ramal, Kajang: 13th – 17th October 2008
  • SERI ABIM Alor Setar: 2009
  • Postgraduate Students of Kulliyyah of Education IIUM
  • Centre for Fundamental Sciences IIUM Science teachers : 19th – 20th March 2009
  • PPD Gombak (English teachers) : 7th & 28th March 2009
  • Setiabudi Primary and Secondary Schools Gombak : 23th – 26th November 2009; 2013; 26-28 March 2014
  • International Islamic School Malaysia Primary and Secondary, Kuala Lumpur: 4-6th January 2010; : 28th August 2012; August 27-28, 2014
  • CELPAD, IIUM. “Developing Islamic Materials” Workshop,: 27th July 2011
  • SK Saujana Utama, Sungai Buloh . “Pedagogy on English Language Teaching” (introducing the use of philosophical inquiry in classroom) : 7th July 2012
  • Sek Keb Kg. Berangan, Pasir Puteh, Kelantan. Innovation in Teaching Mathematics & English: 18th – 20th October 2012
  • Teaching Methodology for Professionals, Philosophical Inquiry for Critical and Creative Students, International Islamic School, 28th January 2014
  • A session on Hikmah Pedagogy for Higher Order Thinking and Meaning. Kulliyah of Education Staff Development Programme, 19th August 2014. 
  • Maahad Tahfiz Sains Fatimah Az-Zahrah, Gombak : 7-9 January 2015.

Trainings and Workshops

  • Trainings and workshops on Philosophy for Children (P4C) / HIKMAH (WISDOM) Programme
  • IIUM SLEU Hikmah Programme (for weak students): 15-16th January  2008 and 1 semester of practical session.
  • Kulliyyah of Education DPLI: Philosophical Inquiry (PI) Course : 18th November 2008
  • IIUM Kulliyyah of Education Bachelor and Masters students : 17th – 19th November 2009
  • Kulliyyah of Education, Postgraduate Workshop on Hikmah Programme : 31st June – 1st July & 14th – 15th July 2012
  • Experimental Programme in Sek Ren Puteri Seremban, Sek Ren Islam Al-Huda, Gombak, Sek Keb Pulau Sebang, Melaka, and Sek Ren Tunku Besar, Tampin 2002-2003.
  • After School Programme in Sek Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Sg Pusu, Gombak for Form Three, February – May 2005
  • SLEU Hikmah Programme (Semester II, 2007/2008) Date: 15th January – 4th March 2008
  • SLEU Hikmah Programme (Semester I, 2008/2009) Date: 22nd July – 9th October 2008
  • Sek Rendah Islam Sg Ramal Kajang,  Teacher Tengku Ketina   2010 – present
  • Setiabudi Primary and Secondary Schools  Gombak 2010 – present
  • International Islamic Primary and Secondary Schools Gombak 2010- present
  • Held annually during the long school holidays from 2003 until today.

Awards and Achievements

  1. IIRIE Gold Medal for Research on the Hikmah Pedagogy of Philosophical Inquiry 2010
  2. Juhasni Adila Juperi who won Best Thesis Award 2011 (Social Science and Humanities category) from Nurul Yaqeen Foundation for the thesis entitled “Philosophical Inquiry in Islamic Education and Its Effect in the Development of Questioning Skills Among Secondary School Students”, 16 April 2012.
  3. Juhasni Adila Juperi who has been awarded with the Tunku Abdull Rahman Graduate Student Bursary 2012 from St. Catherine’s College to pursue an MPhil degree in Education at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.

International Recognition

  1. Visit by Arthur Rush from UNESCO Bangkok Office, 2009
  2. Visit by Prof Jin Hwan Park, South Korea 2010
  3. Visiting PhD student,  Saeed Naji from ICHS Iran (Founder of P4C Iran)
  4. Write up on CPIE in IAPC Newsletter in NJ Spring 2006, pp 10-11
  5. Write up on CPIE in COIN Newsletter, Singapore
  6. Write up on CPIE in the Philosophy: a School of Freedom (UNESCO, 2007) p. 41-42.

Invitations for Knowledge Sharing

  • Reviving the pedagogy of philosophical inquiry among Muslim teachers and students. Paper presented at International Conference on Teacher Education in the Muslim World at Crown Princess Hotel, Kuala Lumpur. July 16 – 18.  Invited speaker
  • Developing capaciities for critical thinking and philosophical reasoning in schools. Paper presented at the Seminar Commemorating World Philosophy Day: The Role Universities in Promoting Dialogue Through Philosophyon 17th November 2008, Centre for Civilizational Dialogue, University Malaya. Invited speaker
  • Reviving the Pedagogy of Philosophical Inquiry in Muslim Curriculum for Effective Civilizational Dialogue, UNESCO AAPD 2010. Port Dickson. May 14 – 17, 2010. Invited speaker
  • Transformative Islamic Education Through A Tarnsformative Pedagogy, International Seminar on Reforms in Islamic Education, Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal Centre of Islamic Studies, University of Cambridge. 9 – 10 April 2011. Invited speaker



  • Rosnani Hashim (2013). Pedagogi Hikmah dan Pengajaran Kemahiran Berfikir di Sekolah.  Kuala Lumpur: CPIE,  IIUM.
  • Rosnani Hashim (2014) Mira Thinking Series for Muslim Children 2d Ed , Kuala Lumpur: Saba Islamic Media. This book is complete with its manual for teachers.

i. Mira goes to the zoo

ii. Mira’s new school

iii. Mira’s thinking about God

iv. Mira and helping the poor

  • Rosnani Hashim  (2012) Sarah – The Budding Thinker. ISBN 978-967-10986-0-8. Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Philosophical Inquiry in Education.
  • Aishah Hanim A. K. & R. Hashim. (2014). Kelucuan dan Kebijaksanaan Hoca Nasruddin. KL: CPIE. ISBN 978-967-0621-06-7
  • Rosnani Hashim (2004)  Siti.  Translation of Lipman’s Pixie.  CPIE.
  • Rosnani Hashim (2004)  Alfiyah.  Translation of Lipman’s Elfie.  CPIE.
  • A Set of Thinking or Conceptual Games.


  • Rosnani Hashim (2010). Reclaiming the Conversation: Islamic Intellectual Tradition in the Malay Archipelago. Kuala Lumpur: The Other Press.
  • Rosnani Hashim (2011). Reviving the pedagogy of philosophical inquiry among Muslim teachers and students in Yedullah Kazmi, New intellectual horizon in Education, pp 1-20. Kuala Lumpur: IIUM Press.
  • Rosnani Hashim (2014). Transformative Islamic Education through a Transformative Pedagogy in Malaysia. In Charlene Tan (Ed.). Reforms in Islamic Education: International Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury
  • R. Hashim, Suhailah H., & J. Adila Juperi (2014). The Hikmah (Wisdom) Program: A philosophical inquiry for the teaching of Islamic Education in Malaysia. In Sa’eda B. & P. Ghim-Kian Chew (Eds.). Muslim Education in the 21stCentury: Asian Perspectives. London: Routledge.
  • Suhailah Hussien (2011) (Ed.). Selected Readings in Educational Foundations: Ummatic Ramifications. ISBN 978-967-418-124-6. Kuala Lumpur: IIUM Press, International Islamic University Malaysia.
  • Yedullah Kazmi (2011) Selected Readings in Islamic Critical Pedagogy, two volumes. Kuala Lumpur: IIUM Press.
  • Rosnani Hashim. (2009). Philosophy in the Islamic tradition: Implications for the Philosophy for Children Program (P4C). In E. Marsal, T. Dobashi and B. Weber (eds.), Children philosophize worldwide: Theoretical and practical concepts. Germany: Peter Lang.
  • Rosnani Hashim(2011). Developing capacities for critical thinking and philosophical reasoning in schools. In S.O. Imbo, A. Baharuddin & S. Saifuddeen S.M. Salleh (Ed.) The role of universities in promoting dialogue through philosophy (Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Civilizational Dialogue, University Malaya), 11-22. 


  • Rosnani Hashim (2002, August), “Investigation on the Teaching of Critical and Creative Thinking in Malaysia,”  Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, Vol 10:1, pp. 39-56.
  • Rosnani Hashim (2003), “Malaysian Teachers’ Attitudes, Competency and Practices in the Teaching of Thinking,” Intellectual Discourse, Vol 11:1, pp.27-50
  • Rosnani Hashim (2005, March), “Kemahiran berfikir, hikmah dan keperluan program falsafah di sekolah [Critical Thinking in School, Wisdom and the Need for Teaching Philosophy]”, Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, Vol 11:2 pp. 46-68.
  • Moomala Othman & Rosnani Hashim (2006, Dec), Critical Thinking and Reading Skills: A comparative study of the Reader Response and the Philosophy for Children Approaches.  Thinking: the Journal of Philosophy for Children. 18:2, pp. 26-34
  • Rosnani Hashim(2009, July), Menghidupkan Semula Pedagogi Inkuiri Falsafah Di Kalangan Pendidik And Pelajar Islam, Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 13:2
  • Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece."Make it mean! Using 'Community of Inquiry' to improve language skills in ESL classrooms". IIUM Journal of Educational Studies, 1:1, (2013), 2
  • Rosnani H.,Suhailah H., &Imran, A. (2014) Ḥikmah (wisdom) pedagogy and students’ thinking and reasoning abilities.   Intellectual Discourse, 22:2 (2014) 119-138.



  1. “Encouraging the Discouraged: Engaging Troubled Teenagers Through Philosophical Inquiry”. IIUM Endowment Fund Type B: RM20,000 / EDWB 14-185-1070 (2014). (Principal Researcher: Dr. Norillah Abdullah, Co-Researcher: Dr. Wan Mazwati Wan Yusof & Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece.)
  2. “The Effectiveness of Community of Inquiry for Muslim ESL Learners”. IIUM Endowment Fund Type A: RM5000 / EDWA 14-126-1553 (2014). (Principal Researcher: Dr. Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece, Co-Researcher: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tunku Badariah Tunku Ahmad)
  3. “The Development of Stimulus Materials for Teaching Form Two Aqidah Using Philosophical Inquiry Method”. IIUM Endowment Fund Type A: RM5000; 2014. (Principal Researcher: Dr. Wan Mazwati Wan Yusof)
  4. “Community Inquiry - A New Inquiry-Based Pedagogy for Realizing the Aspiration of Critical Thinking in the New Blueprint for Education”.FRGS-MOHE/MOE: RM 60,000 (2013:Ongoing). (Principal Researcher: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suhailah Hussien. Co-Researcher: Prof. Rosnani Hashim, Dr. Muhammad Zahiri Awang Mat, Dr. Wan Mazwati Wan Yusof, Dr. Norillah Abdullah, & Dr. Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece.)


  1. Rosnani Hashim  (2003). An experimental study was conducted to find out the effect of doing Philosophy for Children Programme on critical thinking skills among primary grade 5 students of SRI al Huda, Gombak, Kuala Lumpur. Students, who were from the average ability group, were subjected to doing the programme in Malay language for one hour per week for 12 weeks. The effect on critical thinking skills was measured using The New Jersey Test of Reasoning Skills. Pre and post test showed a significant difference in critical thinking skills
  2. Rosnani Hashim (2004). Rosnani replicated the same study (2003)  but between high and average ability groups of Grade 6 students in Tunku Besar Primary school in Tampin, Negeri Sembilan. Both groups (12 years old students) were doing philosophy using English language for one hour every day for three weeks. Although both groups improved in their reasoning and language skills, it was only statistically significant for the high ability group.
  3. Moomala Othman (2005) PhD Dissertation. A comparative study was conducted between Reader Response and Philosophy for Children (P4C) approaches in teaching English Literature among Form Four students of Sekolah Menengah Sains (Science Secondary Residential School) in Ulu Yam, Selangor. The experimental study reported a significant mean difference in reading abilities for P4C group.  There was a difference in means for thinking but not statistically significant. Probably the groups were already of high ability students good in scientific thinking.
  4. Norillah Abdullah (2009).PhD Dissertation. An experimental study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the pedagogy of philosophical Inquiry (PI) in enhancing critical thinking and self-confidence among undergraduate students of the Kulliyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge, IIUM. The result showed that critical thinking skills and self-confidence among the treatment group (using PI) improved significantly.
  5. Wan Mazwati Wan Yusoff  (2010). PhD Dissertation. Reviving the Muslim minds through doing philosophy: Implications for curriculum of Muslim education. International Islamic University Malaysia.  Wan argues for the necessity of reviving philosophical inquiry based on study of the Qur’an, Hadith and the Islamic legacy and its inclusion in Muslim educational curriculum.
  6. Abdul Shakour Preece (2011). PhD Dissertation. Developing ELT materials for Muslim learners (EMML): A Qualitative Study, International Islamic University Malaysia. Abdul Shakour developed ELT materials based on the principles of Islamic values and Lipman’s criteria for a philosophical inquiry story and utilized it among CELPAD non-native English language learners.  The method employed the the P4C’s Community of Inquiry.  The study found that these materials were meaningful and motivating for learners, thereby enhancing their English language learning.
  7. Adila Juhasni Juperi(2011). M.Ed. Project.IIUM. Philosophical Inquiry in Islamic Education for Effective Questioning skills. This qualitative study was conducted in the residential science school in Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan.  The results show that by applying the Community of Philosophical Inquiry approach, students’ level of questioning increased to more of higher order and also their quality of reasoning.
  8. Rosnani H.,Suhailah H., &Imran, A. (2014) Ḥikmah (wisdom) pedagogy and students’ thinking and reasoning abilities.   Intellectual Discourse, 22:2 (2014) 119-138.  A self-perceived study using the survey method of 188 Grade 7 to 10 students of the International Islamic School Malaysia who studied using the Hikmah Programme of philosophical inquiry for one year.  The findings were supportive of the positive influence of the pedagogy on students’ abilities to think and reason better after experiencing the programme. Furthermore, the participants demonstrated a considerable improvement in their cognitive and social-communicative skills, as evidenced in the scores obtained for the post-programme’s test.







Title of Thesis


Akakba Khadidja

Curriculum & Instruction



The Effectiveness of the Community of Inquiry in Teaching English For Non-English speakers


Khamisah Hj. Salehhuddin

Educational Psychology



Using Philosophy Inquiry to Develop Cognitive and Social Skills of IIUM Educare Children


Samar Abdulla

Social Foundations of Education


Completed in 2014

How Islamic Studies Curriculum Empowered Students


Al Munadia

Teaching of Thinking



The Impact of Dayah Muzakarah Method on Critical Thinking Skills


Mariya Seemin Khan

Social Found.



A Critical Notion of What it is to be an Educated Muslim Woman of Today


Wirawani Kamarulzaman

Social Found.



School Based Assessment (SBA) and the Promotion of Critical Thinking Skills in a Malaysian Primary School


Popoola Kareem Hamed

Curri. & Instructn.



Investigating the Integration of Creativity into the Curriculum of Islamic Private Schools in Malaysia”


Shamsuddin Abdullah

Teaching of Thinking



A Study on teaching Thinking Using Philosophical Inquiry in an E-Learning Environment at CFS, IIUM.

9.Abdul Shakour PreeceCurri. & Instructn.PHDCompleted in 2011Developing ELT Materials for Muslim Learners (EMML)
10.Wan Mazwati Wan YusoffTeaching of ThinkingPHDCompleted in 2010Reviving The Muslim Minds Through Doing Philosophy: Implications for Curriculum of Muslim Education
11.Norillah AbdullahTeaching of ThinkingPHDCompleted in 2009An experimental study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the pedagogy of philosophical Inquiry (PI) in enhancing critical thinking and selfconfidence among undergraduate students of the Kulliyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge
12.Moomala OthmanTeaching of Thinking Completed in 2005A comparative study was conducted between Reader Response and Philosophy for Children (P4C) approaches in teaching English Literature among Form Four students of Sekolah Menengah Sains (Science Secondary Residential School) in Ulu Yam, Selangor.

Conference Paper

  1. "Philosophy for Children in the Malaysian Educational System - Reality or fantasy?". Dr. Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece at NAACI 2014 Conference on Philosophy for Children and Its Diverse Application,  25 to 27 June 2014 at Laval University, Quebec, Canada.
  2. “Make it Mean! Using a ‘Community of Inquiry’ To Improve Language Skills in the ESL Classroom.” Dr. Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece at Oxford Education Research Symposium at St Edmund Hall March 17-20, 2013, Oxford, UK.