Fiqh 2.1: Their Significance, Supererogatory Prayers
At-tatawwu', or nawafil or supererogatory prayers, have been legislated to make up for any deficiencies left in the performance of fard salah (obligatory prayers). In salah, there are virtues that are not found in any other form of worship. Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The first thing that the people will be called to account for on the Day of Resurrection will be the prayers. Our Lord will say to the angels although He knows better: 'Look into the salah of my servant to see if he observed it perfectly or been negligent in it. So if he observed it perfectly it will be recorded to his credit, but if he had been negligent in it in any way, Allah would say: See if My servant has any supererogatory prayers. Then if he has any supererogatory prayers, Allah would say: Make up the deficiency in My servant's obligatory prayer with his supererogatory prayers.' Thereafter all his actions will be examined in like manner" (Abu Dawud).
Abu Umamah narrates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Allah does not listen to anything from His slave as He does to the two rak'at (of prayer) that he offers. Mercy descends over the servant's head as long as he remains in prayer" (Ahmad and at-Tirmizhi). As-Sayuti grades it sahih. In al-Muwatta', Malik says: "It has reached me that the Prophet said: '(Try to) keep to the straight path although you won't be able to do so completely; and know that the best of your deeds is the salah, and only a (true) believer preserves his wudu.'" Muslim records from Rabi'ah ibn Malik al-Aslami that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Ask (anything)." Rabi'ah said: "I ask of you to be your companion in paradise." The Prophet said: "Or anything else?" Rabi'ah said: "That is it." The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said to him: "Then help me by making many prostrations (i.e., supererogatory prayers)."
Fiqh 2.2: Offering Supererogatory Prayers in One's House
Ahmad and Muslim relate from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah said: "If one of you offers his prayers in the Mosque then he should make a portion of his prayers in his house, as Allah has made his prayers in his house a means of betterment (for him)."
Ahmad records from 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah said: "The nawafil salah of a man in his house are a light; whoever wishes should lighten up his house."
'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Make some of your prayers in your houses and do not turn your houses into graves." This statement is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Abu Dawud records from Zaid ibn Thabit on sound authority that the Messenger of Allah said: "A person's salah in his house is better than his salah in my mosque, except for the fard salah."
These hadith prove that it is preferred to say one's nawafil prayers in one' s house since prayers in one ' s house are better than those that he performs in the mosque. An-Nawawi says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam encouraged one to offer nawafl in one's house because then the prayers are more private and will have less of a chance of being done for show and will be free from defects that vitiate good deeds. Furthermore, this will be a blessing for the house as mercy and angels will descend on it while Satan flees from it."
It is preferred to prolong the reciting by making many rak'at. The group, except for Abu Dawud, reports that al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah said: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would stand and pray until his feet or shanks swelled. When he was asked about it, he said: 'Should I not be a thankful slave?"' Abu Dawud records from 'Abdullah ibn Hubshi al-Khath'ami that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was asked: "What is the best deed?" He said: "Prolonging the qiyam; (standing) [in the prayer]." Then it was asked: "What is the best charity?" He replied: "The sacrifice made by one who has little to give." Then it was asked: "What is the best migration?" He responded: "The migration from what Allah has forbidden." Then it was asked: "What is the best jihad?" He replied: "Whoever strives against the polytheists with his wealth and soul." They asked: "What is the most honorable death?" He answered: "He whose blood is spilled and whose horse is wounded."
Fiqh 2.3: It is allowed to make supererogatory prayers while in julus (sitting)
It is acceptable for one to make nawafil while sitting even though he has the ability to stand. It is also acceptable for one to make part of such prayers sitting and part of them standing even if all of that is in one rak'ah, (i.e., one sits for part of the first rak'ah and then stands for the rest of it, or vice versa). All of that is acceptable without any dislike for it. One may sit in any manner one likes although it is preferable to sit cross-legged. Muslim records that 'Alqamah asked 'Aishah: "How did the Prophet perform two rak'at while sitting?" She replied: "He would recite while sitting and then when he wished to make ruku', he would stand and bow." Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah record that she said: "I never saw the Messenger of Allah ever sitting while reciting during the night prayer until he became old, then he would sit until when about thirty or forty verses were left of his recital then he would stand, finish the recital and make ruku'..."
Nawafil may be divided into two types: general and specific prayers. The nawafil are said to be those prayers which are in addition to the fard salah, as prayed by the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam.
An-Nawawi says: "If one decides to make nawafil prayers and he does not make any intention concerning the number [of rak'at] he shall make, then he may end the prayer after one rak'ah or make it two rak'at or increase it to three or one hundred or one thousand, and so forth. If he prays a number of [rak'at], without knowing how many, and then ends the prayer his salah will still be valid." There is no difference of opinion on this. The Shaf'iyyah are in agreement with it and there is a text attributed to ash-Shaf'i on this point.
Al-Baihaqi records with a chain of narrators, that Abu Zharr prayed many rak'at and then concluded his salah. Al-Ahnaf ibn Qais asked him: "Do you know if you finished on an odd or an even number?" He replied: "Even if I do not know, Allah knows. I heard my friend Abu al-Qasim say: 'No slave makes a sajdah to Allah without Allah raising him a degree and wiping out one of his sins due to it."' This is related by ad-Darimi in his Musnad with a sahih chain, but it should be noted that there is a difference of opinion over the integrity of one of its narrators.
The specific nawafil prayers are referred to as al-sunan ar-ratibah, or the sunnah prayers that have a specific order, number, and so on. These include the sunnah prayers of fajr, zuhr, 'asr, maghrib, and 'isha.
Fiqh 2.4: The Two rak'at of Fajr
There are a number of hadith that state the virtues of observing the sunnah prayer at dawn time. For example: 'Aishah relates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said about the two rak'at before the fajr "They are dearer to me than the whole world." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmizhi. Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Do not leave the two rak'at of the fajr, even if you are being attacked by a cavalry." This is confirmed by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tahawi. The message of the hadith is that one should not leave the two rak'at of the fajr no matter what the excuse, even while under enemy attack or under most trying conditions. 'Aishah says: "The Messenger of Allah was not so particular about observing any supererogatory prayer as he was in observing the two rak'at before salatul fajr." This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, and Abu Dawud. She also reports that the Prophet said: "The two rak'at of the fajr are better than this world and all it contains." This is reported by Ahmad, Muslim, at-Tirmizhi, and an-Nasa'i. Ahmad and Muslim also record that she said: "I have never seen him [the Prophet] more in haste to do a good deed than he was to perform the two rak'at before the morning [prayer]."
It is well-known that the Prophet would make a very short recital in the two rak'at before the dawn. Hafsah reports: "The Prophet would pray the two rak'at of fajr before the dawn in my house and he would make it very quick." Naf'i states: "Abdullah [Ibn 'Umar] would also make it very quickly." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim. 'Aishah narrates: "The Prophet would pray the two rak'at before the dawn prayer in my house so quickly that I wondered if he had recited the Fatihah in them or not." This is related by Ahmad and others. She also said: "When the Prophet prayed the two rak'at before the dawn prayer I estimated the time that he took in recital was like what it takes to recite al-Fatihah. This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, Malik, and at-Tahawi. It is preferred to recite what has been related from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam: 'Aishah reports that the Prophet would silently recite the following in the two rak'at before salatul fajr
"Say: O disbelievers," and "Say: He is Allah, the One."
This is related by Ahmad and at-Tahawi. He would recite them after al-Fatihah as there is no prayer without the recital of al-Fatihah, as we have already discussed. She also reports that the Prophet said: "These are the two most blessed surahs," and he would recite them in the two rak'at before salatul fajr. This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Jabir relates that a man stood to pray the two rak'at before the dawn prayer and recited "Say: O disbelievers!" in the first rak'ah until he finished the surah. The Prophet said: "That slave knows his Lord." In the second rak'ah he recited: "Say: He is Allah, the One"...to the end of the surah. The Prophet said: "That slave (of Allah) believes in his Lord." Talhah said: "I love to recite these two surahs in these two rak'at." This is related by Ibn Hayyan and at-Tabarani. Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite the following in the two rak'at before the dawn prayer: "Say: We believe in Allah and what has been revealed to us,"' and from surah al-Imran, 'Come to common terms as between us and you.' This is related by Muslim.
Fiqh 2.5: First rak'ah of fajr
In the first rak'ah, after al-Fatiha, he would recite the verse: "Say: We believe in Allah, and the revealation given to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob and the tribes, and [in what] was given to Moses and Jesus, and what was given to the Prophets, from their Lord and we do not differentiate between any of them. And we are Muslims."
In the second rak'ah he would recite: "Say: O People of the Book, come to a statement that is common between us and you; that we shall not worship any save Allah and we shall not associate any partners with Him and we shall not take others as Lords besides Allah. And if they turn away then say: Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered unto Him."
He also reports, in a version recorded by Abu Dawud, that in the first rak'ah the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite: "Say: We believe in Allah..."
In the second rak'ah he would recite: "But when Jesus became conscious of their disbelief, he cried: 'Who will be my helpers in the cause of Allah?' The disciples said: 'We will be Allah's helpers. . . ' "
From the report of 'Aishah, mentioned earlier, it is concluded that it is permissible just to recite al-Fatihah in each rak'ah.
Fiqh 2.6: Supplication after finishing the two sunnah rak'at before the fajr prayer
An-Nawawi says in al-Azhkar. "It is related in the book of Ibn as-Sanni from Abu al-Malih (whose name was 'Aamr ibn Usamah) on the authority of his father that his father had prayed the two rak'at of the dawn [before salatul fajr] and the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was praying the two rak'at close to him, and he heard the Prophet say, while sitting:
'O Allah, Lord of Jibrail, Israfeel, Mikail, and Muhammad, the Prophet, I seek refuge in Thee from the Fire,'"...three times.
He also records from Anas that the Prophet said: "Whoever says, on Friday morning before the salatul fajr,
'I seek the forgiveness of Allah, there is no other god except Him, the Living, the Sustaining, and I repent unto him,' three times, Allah will forgive his sins even if they were as abundant as the foam on the sea."
'Aishah says: "After the Prophet had prayed the two [sunnah] rak'at of the fajr, he would lie down on his right side." This is related by the group. They also record that she reported: "After the Messenger of Allah had prayed the two [sunnah] rak'at of the fajr, he would lie down if I was asleep or would talk to me if I was awake."
There is quite a difference of opinion over this point. Apparently, it is preferred for one to do so if one prays these sunnah rak'at in one's house and not in the mosque. Ibn Hajar says in Fath al-Bari: "Some of the early scholars were of the opinion that it is preferred to do so if one prays in one's house rather than in the mosque." This has been recorded from Ibn 'Umar. Some of our scholars reinforce this argument by stating that there is no evidence that the Prophet ever did so in the mosque. It has also been authentically recorded from Ibn 'Umar that "he would throw pebbles at anyone who did so in the mosque," and this was related by Ibn Abi Shaibah. Imam Ahmad was asked about it and he said: "I do not do it but if a person does it, it is good."
Fiqh 2.7: Belated performance of sunnah rak'at of fajr
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever fails to pray the two [sunnah] rak'at of the fajr until the sun rises, [he should then] pray them." This is related by al-Baihaqi. About its chain an-Nawawi says it is good.
Qais ibn 'Umar relates that he went to the dawn prayer and found the Prophet praying fajr. Although Qais had not prayed the sunnah prayer, he joined the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and prayed with him. When he had finished salatul fajr, he prayed the two rak'at (sunnah) prayer. The Messenger of Allah passed by him and inquired: "What is this prayer?" Qais then informed him of all that had happened. The Prophet kept silent and did not say anything. This is related by Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, at-Tirmizhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah. Al-'Iraqi says its chain is hasan.
Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim relate from 'Imran ibn Hussain that, during a journey, the Prophet slept past the time of salatul fajr and when he woke he waited for the sun to rise a little and then he ordered the mu'zhzhin to make the azhan. Then, the Prophet prayed the fajr sunnah, after which he ordered the iqamah to be made and prayed salatul fajr. It is apparent from this hadith that one is to make up the sunnah prayer before or after the sun rises, regardless of whether only sunnah prayer is missed or both sunnah and fard are missed, and whether there is a valid excuse or not. It may be made up by itself or with the obligatory dawn prayer.
It has been related that the sunnah rak'at at zuhr are four, six, or eight.
Ibn 'Umar said: "We observed and preserved from the Prophet ten rak'at [of sunnah prayers]: two before zuhr and two after it, two after maghrib in his house, two after 'isha in his house and two rak'at before the fajr." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Al-Mughirah ibn Sulaiman reports that he heard Ibn 'Umar say: "The Prophet never left the two rak'at before zuhr and two rak'at after it, two rak'at after maghrib, two rak'a~ after 'isha and two rak'at before fajr." This is related by Ahmad with a good chain.
Fiqh 2.8: Reports concerning six rak'at
'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq said: "I asked 'Aishah about the prayer of the Prophet and she said: 'He would pray four rak'at before zuhr and two after it."' This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and others.
Umm Habibah bint Abu Sufyan reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever prays twelve rak'at during the day and night will have a house built for him in paradise: four rak'at before zuhr and two after it, two rak'at after maghrib, two rak'at after 'isha, and two rak'at before fajr." This is related by at-Tirmizhi who called it hasan sahih. Muslim reports it briefly.
Umm Habibah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever prays four rak'at before zuhr and four after it, Allah will forbid that his flesh be in the fire." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it sahih.
It is related that Abu Ayyub al-Ansari would pray four rak'at before zuhr. The people said to him: "You made that prayer continue too long!" He said: "I saw the Messenger of Allah doing so. I asked him about it and he said: 'It is a time in which the doors of the heavens are opened and I wish that my good deeds be raised (to heaven) during it.'" This is related by Ahmad with a good chain.
'Aishah said: "The Prophet never left praying four rak'at before zuhr and two rak'at before fajr under any circumstances." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari. It is also related from her that during those four rak'at, he would prolong the qiyam [the portion in which one recites the Qur'an] and perfect the ruku' and sujud therein.
There is no contradiction between the hadith of Ibn 'Umar, which states that the Prophet prayed two rak'at before zuhr, and other hadith which state that the Prophet prayed four rak'at before zuhr. Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "It is better to take them as describing different circumstances, sometimes he prayed two rak'at and sometimes he prayed four rak'at. Some say that it may be construed that if he prayed them in the mos que , he prayed only two rak'at, and when he prayed in his house, he prayed four rak'at. On the other hand, it could imply that he prayed two rak'at in his house and then went to the mosque and prayed two rak'at there also. Ibn 'Umar only saw what he prayed in the mosque and not what he prayed in his house, while 'Aishah was aware of both of them. The first interpretation is strengthened by what Ahmad and Abu Dawud recorded from 'Aishah, namely, that the Prophet prayed four rak'at in his house before zuhr and then he went to the mosque."
Abu Ja'far at-Tabari says: "Most of the time he prayed four rak'at and occasionally he prayed two rak'at."
If one prays four rak'at before or after the noon prayers, it is preferred to pray them in two sets consisting of two rak'at each, although it is permissible to make them together with only one taslim at the end of the four rak'at, as the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The prayers of the night and day are (sets of) two [rak'at]." This was related by Abu Dawud with a sahih chain.
Fiqh 2.9: Making up the missed sunnah of zuhr
'Aishah reports that if the Prophet missed the four rak'at before zuhr, he would pray them afterward. This is related by at-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan ghareeb. Ibn Majah records that she said: "If the Prophet missed the four rak'at before zuhr, he would pray them following the two rak'at after zuhr."
The preceding is concerned with making up the sunnah prayers that one is to pray before zuhr. Concerning making up the two rak'at after zuhr, we have the following reports as recorded by Ahmad.
Umm Salamah says: "The Prophet prayed zuhr and then he received some wealth and he sat to distribute it [and continued to do so] until the mu'azhzhin made the azhan for 'asr. He prayed 'asr and came to me, as it was my day, and he prayed two quick rak'at. I said: 'What are those two rak'at, O Messenger of Allah? Have you been ordered to perform them?' He said: 'No, they are the two rak'at that I perform after zuhr but I was busy distributing this wealth until the azhan was made for 'asr and I hated to miss them.'" This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and by Abu Dawud in somewhat different wording.
It is sunnah to pray two rak'at after maghrib. Earlier we mentioned that Ibn 'Umar narrated that the Prophet would not miss them. As to their content, it is preferred to recite, after al-Fatihah: "Say: O Disbelievers," and "Say: He is Allah, the One," in the sunnah prayer after salatul maghrib.
Ibn Mas'ud says: "I cannot count how many times I heard the Messenger of Allah recite, in the two rak'at after maghrib and in the two rak'at before fajr 'Say: O disbelievers,' and 'Say: He is Allah, the One.'" This is related by Ibn Majah and at-Tirmizhi. The later grades it hasan.
It is preferred to pray this sunnah prayer in one's house. Mahmud ibn Labid reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed maghrib with the tribe of 'Abd al-Ashhal. After he made the taslim, he told them: "Perform these two rak'at in your houses." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and an-Nasa'i. We have already mentioned that the Prophet prayed them in his house.
Fiqh 2.10: The sunnah of 'Isha
We have already mentioned the hadith which record that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed two rak'at after 'isha.
We have been discussing the sunnah prayers which were stressed by the Prophet and which he was careful not to miss. There are some other sunnah prayers (al-sunan ar-ratibah) which are commendable, but are not "stressed."
Many ahadith have been related about this sunnah prayer and they all support each other.
Such hadith include the following:
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet said: "May Allah have mercy on a person who prays four rak'at before 'asr prayer." This was related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi (who calls it hasan), Ibn Hibban, and Ibn Khuzaimah. The latter two hold it as sahih. 'Ali reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed four rak'at before 'asr while separating every two sets of rak'at with salutations to the angels close to Allah, to the prophets, and to those who followed them - the believers and Muslims. This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and atTirmizhi who grades it hasan.
As for praying only two rak'af at this time, this would fall under the generality of the Prophet's statement: "Between every azhan and iqamah there is a prayer."
Al-Bukhari records, from 'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal, that the Prophet said: "Pray before maghrib, pray before maghrib," and after saying it a third time, he said: "For whoever wishes to do so," not wanting the people to take it as a sunnah. Ibn Hibban records that the Prophet prayed two rak'at before maghrib prayer.
Muslim records that Ibn 'Abbas said: "We would pray two rak'at before maghrib, and the Prophet would see us but he would not order us to do so, nor would he prohibit us."
Ibn Hajar says in Fath al-Bari: "All of the evidence points to the fact that it is preferred to say these two rak'at quickly like the two rak'at before the salatul fajr."
Fiqh 2.11: Two rak'at before salatul 'isha
'Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal reports that the Prophet said: "Between every azhan and iqamah there is a prayer. Between every azhan and iqamah there is a prayer." And, after saying it a third time, he said: "For whoever wishes [to pray it]." This is related by the group. Ibn Hibban records from Ibn az-Zubair that the Prophet said: "There exists no obligatory prayer without there being, immediately preceding it, two rak'at."
It is preferred to make a separation between the fard and nawafil prayers after one finishes the fard prayer.
One of the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam reports that the Prophet prayed the afternoon prayer and right afterward a man stood up to pray. 'Umar saw him and told him: "Sit, the People of the Book were destroyed because they did not differentiate between their prayers." The Prophet said: "Well said, Ibn al-Khattab [i.e., 'Umar]." This is related by Ahmad with a sahih chain.
Its excellence and justification: The witr prayer is one that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam practiced and which he encouraged others to practice. As such, praying witr comes under as-sunnah al-mu'akkadah.
'Ali says: "The witr prayer is not required like your obligatory prayers, but the Prophet would perform the witr prayer and say: 'O you people [followers] of the Qur'an, perform the witr prayer, for Allah is one and He loves the witr.'" This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, at-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan, and al-Hakim who grades it sahih.
The opinion of Abu Hanifah that the witr prayer is obligatory is a weak opinion. Ibn al-Munzhir says: "I don't know anyone who agrees with Abu Hanifah on this point."
Ahmad, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah record that Al-Mukhdaji [a person of the Kinana tribe] heard from one of the Ansar, nicknamed Abu Muhammad, that the witr prayer is obligatory. He went to 'Ibadah ibn as-Samit and mentioned to him what Abu Muhammad had said. 'Ibadah observed: "Abu Muhammad is mistaken for I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Five prayers are ordained by Allah for his slaves. Whoever fulfills them properly without any shortcoming, he will have a pact with Allah that He will admit him into paradise. Whoever does not do them, he will have no pact with Allah, and if He wills He may punish him and if He wills He may forgive him.'"
Also al-Bukhari and Muslim record from Talhah ibn 'Ubaidullah that the Prophet said: "Five prayers during the day and night have been prescribed by Allah." Hearing this a bedouin asked the Prophet: "Is there anything else upon me [in the way of prayer]?" The Prophet said: "No, unless you want to do more voluntarily."
Fiqh 2.12: Time for witr prayer
All the scholars agree that the time for the witr prayer does not begin until after salatul 'isha and it continues until the time of salatul fajr.
Abu Tamim al-Jishani relates that 'Amr ibn al-'Aas was addressing the people during a Friday Khutbah and he said: "Abu Basra related to me that the Prophet said: 'Verily, Allah has added a prayer for you, and it is the witr prayer. Pray it between salatul 'isha and salatul fajr.'" Abu Tamim said: "Abu Zharr took me by my hand and we went in the mosque to Abu Basra and [Abu Zharr] said: 'Did you hear what 'Amr just said from the Messenger of Allah?' He answered: 'I heard it from the Messenger of Allah!"' This is related by Ahmad with a sahih chain.
Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari relates: "The Prophet sallellahu alehi wasallam would make the witr prayer in the first part of the night or the middle of it or the latter part of it." Ahmad has reported it with a sound chain.
'Abdullah ibn Abi Qais relates that he asked 'Aishah about the witr prayer of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and she said: "Sometimes he would make the witr prayer in the first part of the night and sometimes he would make the witr prayer in the latter portion of the night." Then 'Abdullah asked: "How was his recitation, audible or inaudible?" She replied: "He did both. Sometimes he would be inaudible and sometimes audible. Sometimes he would make ghusl and sleep and sometimes he would make ablution and sleep [i.e., when he was sexually defiled]." This is related by Abu Dawud, Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmizhi. It is preferred to pray it early if one suspects that one will not wake during the latter portion of the night. It is, on the other hand, advisable to delay it if one believes that one will be able to wake up during the latter portion of the night.
If one suspects that one will not be able to perform the prayer in the latter portion of the night, it should be prayed during the early portion of the night (before sleeping).
Jabir reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever of you fears that he will not be able to wake during the latter portion [of the night], he should make the witr prayer during the early part [of the night]. And whoever of you believes that he will be able to wake during the latter portion of the night, he should make the witr prayer during that latter portion as it is the blessed time [the angels are attentive to the prayers in the last portion of the night]." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, atTirmizhi, and Ibn Majah.
Jabir also narrates that the Messenger of Allah inquired of Abu Bakr: "When do you perform the witr prayer?" Abu Bakr replied: "In the early portion of the night after the night prayer" Then the Prophet said: "And you, O 'Umar?" He answered: "During the latter portion of the night." The Prophet said: "As for you, O Abu Bakr, you have taken the careful way. As for you, 'Umar, you have taken the way of hardship and firm will." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and al-Hakim who says it is sahih according to Muslim's criterion. However, the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray the witr prayer near dawn time for it is the most blessed time, as mentioned previously.
'Aisha reports: "Out of the entire night, the Messenger of Allah would sometimes perform the witr prayer during the early portion; sometimes he would perform it during the middle portion; and sometimes in the latter portion of the night, just before dawn." This is related by the group.
Nevertheless, considering the possibility of losing witr, the Prophet advised some of his companions not to sleep until they had performed the witr prayer in order to be on the safe side.
Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas would pray salatul 'isha in the Prophet's mosque and then would pray one rak'ah of witr without making any addition to it. The people said to him: "Abu Ishaq, do you make the witr with just one rak'ah without adding any (other rak'ah) to it?" He said: "Yes, for I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'The one who does not sleep until he makes the witr prayer is prudent.'" This was related by Ahmad and its narrators are trustworthy.
Fiqh 2.13: Nature and number of rak'at for witr
It is permissible to perform the witr by praying two rak'at [and concluding them] and then praying one rak'ah with a tashahud and taslim. Likewise, it is allowed to pray all the rak'at with two tashahuds and one taslim. One may pray a number of rak'at, one after another, without making any tashahud, save in the one before the last rak'ah in which case one makes the tashahud and then stands to perform the last rak'ah wherein one will make another tashahud and end the prayer with the taslim. One may also make only one tashahud and the taslim, in the last rak'ah of witr. All of that is permissible and can be traced to the Prophet.
Talking about the thirteen rak'at in witr, at-Tirmizhi says: "It has been related from the Prophet that he would perform the witr prayer with thirteen, nine, seven, five, three rak'at or one rak'ah."
On the other hand, Ishaq ibn Ibrahim holds: "The meaning of the statement that the Prophet prayed thirteen rak'at of witr is that during the night he would pray thirteen rak'at including the witr prayer, and so all of the night prayer came to be known as witr."
Ibn al-Qayyim's view is that "the clear, authentic sunnah is to pray the witr with five or seven connected rak'at as reported by Umm Salamah in her hadith. [She says] that the Prophet would perform the witr with five or seven rak'at without breaking them apart with taslim or any speech." This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah with a good chain.
As previously mentioned, al-Bukhari and Muslim quote 'Aishah saying that the Prophet would perform thirteen rak'at during the night and would make the witr prayer with five of them, and he would not 'sit' [during those five] except in the last rak'ah of them. In another hadith, 'Aishah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would perform nine rak'at during the night and that he would not sit during them until the eighth rak'ah in which he would make remembrance of Allah, praising Him, and would make supplication. Then, he would stand without making the taslim and pray the ninth rak'ah, after which he would sit, make the tashahud and make the taslim in such a manner that we could hear him. Then, he would pray two rak'at after the taslim while sitting, and that would make eleven rak'at. When he became older and heavier, he would make the witr with seven rak'at, performing the (last) two rak'at like the first one. In another version from her, it is stated: "When he became older and bulkier, he would make the witr with seven rak'at, and he would not sit during them, save in the sixth and seventh rak'ah and he would not make the taslim, save in the seventh rak'ah." In yet another version, it is stated: "He would pray seven rak'at and would not sit, save in the last of them." This is related by the group.
All of the preceding ahadith are authentic and clear and there is no contradiction in them. As to the Prophet's statement: "The night prayer is in sets of two [rak'at]," it is not relevant here. This is an authentic hadith, and the statement that he observed witr with seven or five rak'at is equally true. Both statements confirm each other. The seven, five, nine, and one rak'ah constitute the witr prayer, for witr is the name given to the one rak'ah offered in conclusion of whatever is offered prior to it. And the witr of the five, seven and nine rak'at are all connected like the maghrib which is described as three connected rak'at. If one breaks apart the five or seven rak'at with two taslim, like in the eleven rak'at, it will all be called witr due to the last odd rak'ah. This is supported by the Prophet's statement: 'The night prayer is sets of two rak'at. If one fears the coming of the dawn, he should perform one rak'ah, thereby making all of them odd [witr].' Therefore, the Prophet's actions and statements are in agreement, each part confirming the other." The fact is that the Prophet was responding to a question about the night prayer when he said: "it is in pairs of two." He was not speaking about witr, for the man had asked him about night prayer, and not about the witr.
Fiqh 2.15: Recitation in the witr
It is permissible to recite after al-Fatihah any surah which one wishes to recite. 'Ali says: "There is not a part of the Qur'an that is obsolete, so make the witr prayer of whatever you wish from it." However, it is preferred to recite, in the first of the three rak'at of witr, al-A'la after reciting al-Fatihah. In the second rak'ah, it is preferred to recite al-Kafirun. In the third rak'ah, it is proper to recite the last three surahs of the Qur'an. This is narrated by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Tirmizhi, who relate from 'Aishah, on sound authority saying: The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite Ala'la in the first rak'ah, Al-Kafirun in the second and the last three surahs in the third rak'ah.
It is part of sunnah to supplicate with qunut in the witr prayer during the entire year. Ahmad, at-Tirmizhi, an-Nasa'i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and others record that al-Hassan ibn 'Ali said: "The Messenger of Allah taught me the [following] words to say in the witr prayer: 'O Allah, guide me among those whom You have guided. Grant me safety among those whom You have granted safety. Take me into Your charge among those whom You have taken into Your charge. Bless me in what You have given me. Protect me from the evil that You have decreed, for You decree and nothing is decreed for You. And there is no humiliation for whom You take as a ward. Blessed and Exalted are You, our Lord. ' "
At-Tirmizhi grades this hadith as hasan, and says: "... nothing is known from the Prophet concerning qunut more authentic than that." Commenting on its status, an-Nawawi says that its chain is sahih. Ibn Hazm has some reservations about its soundness, but says: "This hadith, although it is not one that can be used as a proof, is all that we have from the Prophet, and a weak hadith is dearer to me than mere opinion." Ahmad says this is also the view of Abu Musa, Ibn Mas'ud, Ibn 'Abbas, al-Bara', Anas, al-Hassan al-Basri, 'Umar ibn 'Abdul'aziz, al-Thauri, Ibn al-Mubarak, and the Hanafi school. This, an-Nawawi says, gives credibility to the report.
Ash-Shaf'i and others are of the opinion that the qunut in the witr prayer should be made during the latter half of the month of Ramadan. This is based on what Abu Dawud records that, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab convoked the people in prayer, under the leadership of Ubayy ibn Ka'b, and they prayed together for twenty nights, and he did not make the qunut except for during the latter half of the month of Ramadan. It is moreover related that Muhammad ibn Nasr asked Sa'id ibn Jubair about the qunut in the witr prayer. Sa'id answered: " 'Umar sent an army that suffered serious setback, which caused 'Umar to be alarmed, so, when it was the latter half of Ramadan, he made the qunut to supplicate for them."
Fiqh 2.16: How to perform the qunut
It is permissible to make the qunut before going into ruku' (bowing), or lt may be recited when one stands up straight after the ruku'. Humaid says: "I asked Anas: 'Is the qunut before or after the ruku'?' He said: 'We would do it before or after.'" This was related by Ibn Majah and Muhammad ibn Nasr. In Fath al-Bari, Ibn Hajar comments that its chain is faultless.
If one makes the qunut before the ruku', one should make the takbir and raise one's hands after the recital, and similarly make another takbir after the qunut, and then bow. This has been related from some companions. Some scholars hold that it is preferable to raise one's hands in supplication during the qunut, while others disagree.
As to wiping face with hands after the qunut, al-Baihaqi writes: "It is preferred not to do so and to confine one's self to what the early generations did. They raised their hands but did not wipe their faces during the prayer."
Fiqh 2.17: Supplications after the witr
It is preferred for a person to say after the taslim: "Glory be to the Master, the Holy," three times aloud, saying the third time: "Lord of the angels and the souls." Abu Dawud and anNasa'i record that Ubayy ibn Ka'b said: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite al-A'la and al-Kafirun in the witr prayer. When he made the taslim, he would say: 'Glory be to the Master, the Holy ,' three times, prolonging the third repetition and saying it aloud." This is the wording in which an-Nasa'i recorded it. Ad-Daraqutni has the addition: "And he would say, 'Lord of the angels and the spirits. "' He would then make supplications and, according to what Ahmad, anNasa'i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi record from 'Ali, he would say at the end of his witr: "O Allah, I seek refuge in Your pleasure from your anger. And I seek refuge in Your granting well being from Your punishment. And I seek refuge in You from You. I cannot reckon Your praise: You are as You have praised Yourself."
Whoever has performed the witr prayer and then wishes to do some more, he may do so but he is not to repeat the witr.
Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and at-Tirmizhi have recorded from 'Ali that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "There are no two witr prayers in one night." At-Tirmizhi grades it hasan.
'Aishah relates that the Prophet would make the taslim in such a manner that we could hear him and then, he would pray two rak'at while sitting. This is related by Muslim.
Umm Salamah also narrates that he prayed two rak'at while sitting, after the witr prayer. This was related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and others.
Fiqh 2.18: Making up a missed witr
According to al-Baihaqi and al-Hakim, the majority of the scholars maintain that it is correct to make qada' for a missed witr prayer. Al-Hakim grades the following report by Abu Hurairah as sahih according to the criterion of al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "If the morning approaches, and you have yet to pray witr, you should pray the witr prayer." Abu Dawud records from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Prophet said: "If one of you sleeps [past the time of] the witr prayer or he forgets it, he should pray it when he remembers it." Al-'Iraqi says that the chain of this hadith is sahih.
Ahmad and at-Tabarani record with a hasan chain that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would perform the witr prayer in the morning [if, for some reason, he had missed it during the night].
Generally speaking, there is a difference of opinion over what time it may be made up. The Hanafi school holds it should be performed during those times in which it is not forbidden to observe prayers. The followers of Shaf'i say that it may be made up during any time of the night or day, while according to Malik and Ahmad a missed witr prayer is to be made up for after the dawn.
It is legitimate to recite the qunut aloud in any of the five daily prayers at those times when Muslims are faced with calamities. Ibn 'Abbas relates that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam made qunut consecutively for one month in the zuhr, 'asr, maghrib, 'isha, and fajr prayers. At the end of every prayer, after saying: "Allah hears him who praises Him" in the last rak'ah, he would supplicate against Re'l, Zhakwan, and 'Usiyyah'ø of Banu Sulaim, and the people behind him would say 'Ameen'. This is related by Ahmad and by Abu Dawud adding that these three had killed the emissaries that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam had sent to them. 'Ikrimah says: "That was the begining of the qunut."
Abu Hurairah reports that whenever the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam wanted to supplicate against or for someone, he would make qunut after going into ruku'. Sometimes, he would say: "Allah hears him who praises Him. Our Lord, to you is the praise. O Allah! Save al-Walid ibn al-Walid and Salamah ibn Hisham and 'Iyash ibn Abi Rabi'ah and the oppressed [and weak] believers. O Allah, put hardship and pressure on the tribe of Muzhar and give them years of famine like those during the time of Yusuf." He would say this aloud in some of the prayers. Also in the dawn prayer, he would say: "Oh Allah, curse so and so," cursing two tribes of Arabs until Allah revealed: "It is no concern at all of thee [Muhammad] whether He relent toward them or punish them, for they are evildoers ." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari .
Fiqh 2.19: Al-Qunut in salatul fajr
It is not correct to make qunut in the dawn prayer except during times of calamity, in which case it may be made in any of the five daily prayers. Abu Malik al-Ashja'i said: "My father prayed behind the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam when he was sixteen years old, and he prayed behind Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman. I asked him, 'Did they make the qunut'?' He said, 'No, son, it is something that has been innovated."' This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it sahih. Anas said that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would not make the qunut in fajr unless he was supplicating for a people or supplicating against a people. This is related by Ibn Hibban, al-Khatib, and Ibn Khuzaimah who said it is sahih.
It is also related that az-Zubair, Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman did not make the qunut in the dawn prayer. This is the opinion of the Hanafiyyah, the Hanbaliyyah, Ibn al-Mubarak, al-Thauri, and Ishaq. The followers of Shaf'i are of the opinion that the qunut is to be made after the ruku' of the second rak'ah in the obligatory dawn prayer. This opinion is based on the following two reports. Ibn Sireen narrates that Anas ibn Malik was asked: "Did the Prophet make the qunut in the dawn prayer?" He answered: "Yes." They asked him: "Before the ruku' or after it?" He replied: "After it." This is related by the group save at-Tirmizhi.
There is a report from Anas which says: "The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam did not stop making qunut during the dawn prayer until he left this world." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bazzar, adDaraqutni, al-Baihaqi, and al-Hakim who says it is sahih.
However, there remains some doubt concerning this evidence since the qunut which they asked Anas about, as is clear in the narrations of al Bukhari and Muslim, was the qunut during the time of calamities. Concerning the latter hadith (the one mentioned in support of their stand), in its chain of narrators there is Abu Ja'far ar-Razi who is not a credible source and, thus, one cannot build a case upon his hadith. How could it be that the Messenger of Allah never stopped performing this qunut until his death, and yet, the rightly guided caliphs did not perform it? It is even confirmed that Anas himself did not make the qunut in the dawn prayer! If we must accept this latter hadith as authentic, it would mean that the Prophet always made supplications and remembrance ( zhikr), after the ruku', until his death. This would also come under qunut and, in this sense, it would be more befitting. Still, this is one of the matters in which it is acceptable to have differences of opinion, and one may either do it or leave it. The best guidance is that of Muhammad sallallahu alehi wasllam.
Fiqh 2.20: The Late Night Prayer, tahajjud (qiyam al-Layil)
Its excellence and merit from the Qur'an: Allah ordered his Messenger to perform salatul tahajjud:
"And some part of the night awake for prayer, a largess for thee. It may be that thy Lord will raise thee to a praised position."
This order, although it was specifically directed to the Prophet, also refers to all the Muslims since the Prophet is their example and guide in all such matters.
Those who regularly perform the tahajjud prayers are the Righteous and are more deserving of Allah's bounty and mercy. Allah says: "Lo! Those who keep from evil will dwell amid gardens and water springs, taking that which their Lord gives them. For, lo, they were doers of good. They used to sleep but little of the night and before the dawning of each day would seek forgiveness.''
Allah praised and complemented the deeds of those who perform the late-night prayers. "The slaves of the Beneficent are they who walk upon the earth in humbleness, and when the ignorant address them, they say: 'Peace' and they who spend the night prostrating before their Lord and standing" [ al-Furqan: 63-64 ].
Allah bears witness to their belief in His signs. He says: "Only those believe in Our revelations who, when they are reminded of them, fall down prostrate and hymn the praise of their Lord and they are not scornful: who forsake their beds to cry unto their Lord in fear and hope and spend of what We have bestowed on them. No soul knows what is kept hidden for them of joy as a reward for what they used to do.''
Allah proclaims that those who do not possess these qualities cannot be treated as equal to those who possess them: "Is he who pays adoration in the watches of the night, prostrate and standing, aware of the Hereafter and hoping for the mercy of his Lord equal to a disbeliever? Say: 'Are those who know equal with those who know not?' But only men of understanding will pay heed.''
Fiqh 2.21: Hadith regarding Tahajjud
The preceding section was primarily concerned with what Allah says about those who perform salatul tahajjud. There also exist a number of ahadith that reinforce the importance of tahajjud.
'Abdullah ibn as-Salam reports: "When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam came to Medinah, the people gathered around him and I was one of them. I looked at his face and understood that it was not the face of a liar. The first words I heard him say were: 'O people, spread the salutations, feed the people, keep the ties of kinship, and pray during the night while the others sleep and you will enter paradise in peace."' This is related by al-Hakim, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan sahih.
Salman al-Farsi relates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Observe the night prayer, it was the practice of the rightous before you and it brings you closer to your Lord and it is penance for evil deeds and erases the sins and repells disease from the body."
Sahl ibn Sa'd reports: "Gabriel came to the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and said: 'O Muhammad, live as long as you like, for you are to die. Do whatever deed you wish, for you are to be rewarded. Love whomever you wish, for you are to be parted. And know that the honor of the believer is in the night prayer and his glory is being free from want from the people."'
Abu ad-Darda' reports that the Prophet said: "Three people are loved by Allah, and He laughs for them and He grants them glad tidings. [The first is] a man who fights behind a group that flees and does so with his own soul for Allah's sake, regardless of whether he is killed or he is aided by Allah and made victorious. Allah says: 'Look to my slave there who is patient with his life for My sake.' [The second is] the one who has a beautiful wife and a soft bed and rises during the night. Allah says: 'He leaves his desires and remembers Me and if he wished he would sleep.' [The third] is a person who is traveling with a group and they pass the night awake and then sleep, but he still observes his prayer in hardship or ease."
Fiqh 2.22: Etiquettes of Late Night Prayer
The following acts are sunnah for one who wishes to perform the tahajjud prayers. Upon going to sleep, one should make the intention to perform the tahajjud prayers. Abu ad-Darda' relates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever goes to his bed with the intention of getting up and praying during the night, and sleep overcomes him until the moming comes, he will have recorded for him what he had intended, and his sleep will be a charity for him from his Lord." This is related by an-Nasa'i and ibn Majah with a sahih chain. Upon waking, one should wipe one's face, use a toothstick, and look to the sky and make the supplication which has been reported from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam: "There is no God but Thee, Glory be to Thee, I seek forgiveness from You for my sins, and I ask for your mercy. O Allah, increase my knowledge and let my heart not swerve after You have guided me, and bestow mercy upon me from Thyself. All praise be to Allah who has given us back life after our death and unto Him is the resurrection."
Then, one should recite the last ten 'ayat of al-'Imran, starting with, "Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and [in] the difference of night and day are tokens (of His sovereignty) for men of understanding." Then one should say, "O Allah, to You belongs the praise. You are the Light of the heavens and the earth and what is therein. And to You belongs the praise. You are the truth and Your promise is true. And the meeting with You is true. And the paradise is true. And the Fire is true. And the prophets are true. And Muhammad is true. And the Hour is true. O Allah, to You have I submitted. And in You have I believed. And in You have I put my trust. And to You have I turned. And by You I argue. And to You do I turn for my decisions. Forgive me of my former and latter sins, and those done in private and those done in public. You are Allah, there is no God besides Thee."
One should begin Qiyam al-Layil with two quick rak'at and then one may pray whatever one wishes after that. 'Aishah says: "When the Prophet prayed during the late-night, he would begin his prayers with two quick rak'at." Both of these reports are related by Muslim.
Fiqh 2.23: One should wake up one's family for tahajjud
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "May Allah bless the man who gets up during the night to pray and wakes up his wife and who, if she refuses to get up, sprinkles water on her face. And may Allah bless the woman who gets up during the night to pray and wakes up her husband and who, if he refuses sprinkles water on his face." The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam also said: "If a man wakes his wife and prays during the night or they pray two rak'at together, they will be recorded among those (men and women) who (constantly) make remembrance of Allah." This is related by Abu Dawud and others with a sahih chain.
Umm Salamah narrates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam got up during the night and said: "Glory be to Allah. What trials are descended with the night. And what has descended of treasures. Who will waken the lady occupants of the rooms (i.e., his wives) for prayers; how many a well dressed in this world will be naked in the hereafter." This is related by al-Bukhari
Al-Bukhari and Muslim record that the Messenger of Allah asked 'Ali and Fatimah: "Do you not pray [during the night]?" 'Ali said: "O Messenger of Allah, we are in Allah's hands. If He wishes to make us get up, we get up." The Prophet turned away when he said that. Then, they could hear him striking his thigh and saying: "Verily, man disputes a lot." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Fiqh 2.24: One should stop praying tahajjud and sleep if one becomes very sleepy
'Aishah reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "When one of you gets up during the night for prayer and his Qur'anic recital becomes confused to the extent that he does not know what he says, he should lie down." This is related by Muslim.
Anas narrates that the Messenger of Allah entered the mosque and saw a rope stretching between two posts. He asked: "What is this?" The people told him that it was for Zainab [bint Jahsh] who, when she became tired or weary, held it (to keep standing for the prayer). The Prophet said: "Remove the rope. You should pray as long as you feel active, and when you get tired or weary, you should lie down to rest." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
One should not overburden one's self with the night prayer and should only pray it to the extent that is reasonable, and not leave that practice unless there is some great need to do so. 'Aishah reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "Do (good) deeds according to your capacity, for by Allah, Allah does not weary from giving rewards unless you get tired of doing good deeds." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim also relate from 'Aishah that the Messenger of Allah was asked: "What is the most loved deed to Allah?" He answered: "One that is performed constantly even if it is a small deed." And Muslim recorded that 'Aishah said: "The Messenger of Allah was constant in his deeds, and if he did something, he would do it consistently."
'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "O 'Abdullah, do not become like so-and-so who used to make the tahajjud prayers and then he stopped praying it." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim also record, on the authority of 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, that it was mentioned to the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam that a man slept until the morning. [ThereuponJ he said: "Satan has urinated into the ears of that person." They also record from Salim ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, from his father, that the Messenger of Allah said to his father, "Abdullah would be a good man if he would pray the tahajjud prayers." Salim said: "After that, 'Abdullah would not sleep during the night save for a small amount at a time."
Salatul Layil may be performed in the early part of the night, the middle part of the night, or the latter part of the night, but after the obligatory salatul 'isha.
While describing the salah of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, Anas would say: "If we wanted to see him praying during the night, we could see him praying. If we wanted to see him sleeping during the night, we could see him sleeping. And sometimes he would fast for so many days that we thought he would not leave fasting throughout that month. And sometimes he would not fast (for so many days) that we thought he would not fast during that month." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and anNasa' i .
Commenting on this subject, Ibn Hajar says: "There was no specific time in which the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would perform his late night prayer; but he would do whatever was easiest for him."
Fiqh 2.25: Best time for tahajjud
It is best to delay this prayer to the last third portion of the night. Abu Hurairah reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "Our Lord descends to the lowest heaven during the last third of the night, inquiring: 'Who will call on Me so that I may respond to him? Who is asking something of Me so I may give it to him? Who is asking for My forgiveness so I may forgive him?"' This is related by the group.
'Amr ibn Abasah reports that he heard the Prophet say: "The closest that a slave comes to his Lord is during the middle of the latter portion of the night. If you can be among those who remember Allah, the Exalted One, at that time then do so." This is related by al-Hakim who grades it sahih according to Muslim's standards, and at-Tirmizhi calls it hasan sahih. AnNasa'i and Ibn Khuzaimah also recorded it.
Abu Muslim asked Abu Zharr: "Which late-night prayer is the best?" He said: "I asked the Messenger of Allah the same that you asked me and he said, 'The (one done during) middle of the latter half of the night, and very few do it.'" This is related by Ahmad with a good chain.
'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reports that the Prophet said: "The most beloved fast to Allah is the fast of David. And the most beloved prayer to Allah is the prayer of David. He would sleep half of the night and then pray during the next third of the night and then sleep during the last sixth of the night. And he would fast one day and not fast the next." This is related by the group except at-Tirmizhi.
The number of rak'at to be performed during tahajjud: The tahajjud prayer does not entail a specific number of rak'at which must be performed nor is there any maximum limit which has to be performed. It would be fulfilled even if one just prayed one rak'ah of witr after the obligatory night prayer.
Samurah ibn Jundub says: "The Messenger of Allah ordered us to pray during the night, a little or a lot, and to make the last of the prayer the witr prayer." This is related by at-Tabarani and al-Bazzar.
Anas relates that the Messenger of Allah said: "Prayer in my mosque is equal to ten thousand prayers [elsewhere]. And prayer in the inviolable mosque is equivalent to one hundred thousand prayers [elsewhere]. And prayer in the battlefield is equivalent to one million prayers [elsewhere]. And what is more than all of that is two rak'at by a slave [of Allah] during the middle of the night." This is reported by Abu ash-Shaikh, Ibn Hibban in his work ath-Thawab, and al-Munzhiri, in his book at-Targhib watTarhib, is silent about it.
Iyas ibn Mu'awiyyah al-Mazni reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The night prayer should certainly be performed even if it is for the length of time that it takes one to milk a sheep. And whatever is after the obligatory 'isha is of the tahajjud." This is related by at-Tabarani, and all of its narrators are trustworthy save Muhammad ibn Ishaq.
Ibn 'Abbas relates: "I mentioned the tahajjud prayer and some of the people said that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: 'It may be half of the night, a third of the night, a fourth of the night or a fraction of the time for milking a camel or a sheep.""
Ibn 'Abbas also narrates that the Prophet ordered them and encouraged them to make the tahajjud prayer to the extent that he said: "You should perform salatul layil even if it is just one rak'ah." This is related by atTabarani in al-Kabir and al-Awsat.
Fiqh 2.26: It is preferable to pray eleven or thirteen rak'at for tahajjud
One may choose between praying them all together or to separate them. 'Aishah says: "The Messenger of Allah never prayed more than eleven rak'at, during Ramadan or otherwise. He would pray four rak'at, and don't ask about how excellent they were or how lengthy they were. Then, he would pray four rak'at, and don't ask about how excellent they were or how lengthy they were. Then, he would pray three rak'at. I asked: 'O Messenger of Allah, do you sleep before praying witr?' he replied: 'O 'Aishah, my eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep."' This is recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim who also record that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said that he heard 'Aishah say: "The Messenger of Allah's prayer during the night would be ten rak'at and then he would make witr with one rak'ah."
Muslim records that 'Aishah said: "If the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam missed the late-night prayers due to pain or anything else, he would pray twelve rak'at during the day."
'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever sleeps past his full portion [of the late-night prayers] or part of them, he should pray between the dawn and noon prayers and it would be recorded for him as if he had prayed during the night." This is related by the group except for al-Bukhari.
Fiqh 2.27: The legality of the Tarawih prayer
The specific prayers during the month of Ramadan, which are known as tarawih, are sunnah for both men and women, and they are to be performed after the obligatory 'isha and before the performance of the witr. They should be prayed in sets of two rak'at each. It is allowed to pray them after witr; though, this is not the best thing to do. They may be performed until the end of the night.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would encourage people to perform the special prayers during Ramadan without commanding them as obligatory and he said: "Whoever prays during the nights of Ramadan [tarawih] with a firm belief and hoping for reward, all of his previous sins would be forgiven." This is related by the group.
'Aishah says: "The Prophet offered salah in the mosque and many people prayed with him. The next day he did the same and more people prayed with him. Then the people gathered on the third night but, the Prophet did not come out to them. In the morning, he said to them: 'Surely I saw what you did, and nothing prevented me from coming out to you, save that I feared that [that prayer] would be made obligatory upon you.' And that was during Ramadan." This is related by the group except for at-Tirmizhi .
'Aishah reported that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would not pray more than eleven rak'at during Ramadan or otherwise. This is related by the group.
Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban have recorded in their sahihs on the authority of Jabir that the Prophet prayed eight rak'at and the witr prayer with the companions. Then, the next day, the people waited for him but he did not come out to them.
Abu Ya'la and at-Tabarani record, with a hasan chain, from Jabir that Ubayy ibn Ka'b came to the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and said: "O Messenger of Allah, I have done something last night," (i.e., during Ramadan). The Prophet said: 'And what was that, O Ubayy?' He said: The women in my house said, 'We don't recite Qur'an [well or much] so can we pray behind you?' I prayed eight rak'at and the witr prayer with them.
The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam was pleased with that and did not say anything."
This is the sunnah that has been related from the Messenger of Allah and nothing besides that is authentic. It is also true that during the time of 'Umar, 'Uthman, and 'Ali the people prayed twenty rak'at, and this is the opinion of the majority of the jurists of the Hanafi and Hanbali schools as well as that of Dawud.
At-Tirmizhi says: "Most of the people of knowledge follow what has been related from 'Umar and 'Ali and other companions of the Prophet, [i.e., that they prayed] twenty rak'at. And this is the opinion of al-Thauri, Ibn al-Mubarak, and ash-Shaf'i. And so I found the people of Makkah praying twenty rak'at."
Some of the scholars are of the opinion that the sunnah is eleven rak'at, including witr, and it is also preferred to pray the remainder [of the twenty rak'at] .
Al-Kamal ibn al-Hamam says: "The evidence indicates that the sunnah of the twenty rak'at is what the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam himself did and then he stopped out of fear that it would become something obligatory (for his followers), therefore, the rest of the rak'at are only preferred. It is however, confirmed that he only prayed eleven rak'at, including the witr, as is stated in the two sahihs. According to the scholars, the sunnah is eight rak'at while it is preferred to pray twelve rak'at."
Fiqh 2.28: Praying tarawih in congregation
It is allowed to pray tarawih of the month of Ramadan in a congregation just as it is allowed to pray them on an individual basis. The majority of the scholars, however, prefer to pray them in congregation. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, as stated earlier, prayed tarawih in congregation with the Muslims but he discontinued since he feared that it would be made obligatory.
'Umar was the one who convoked the Muslims to pray tarawih behind one imam. Abdurahman ibn Abdulqari reports: "One night during Ramadan, I went with 'Umar to the mosque and the people were praying in different groups. Some were praying by themselves and others were praying in small groups. 'Umar said: 'I think it would be better if I gathered them under one imam .' Then he did so and appointed Ubayy ibn Ka'b as the leader of the prayer. Then I went out with him on another night and all the people were praying behind one imam and 'Umar said: 'What a good innovation (bid'ah) this is,' but, it is better to sleep and delay it until the latter portion of the night." The people (however) prayed it at the beginning of the night. This is related by al-Bukhari, Ibn Khuzaimah, alBaihaqi, and others.
Fiqh 2.29: The recitation of the Qur'an in tarawih
There is no particular sunnah regarding the recitation during salat at-tarawih. It is related that some people of the early generations would pray with two hundred 'ayyahs or so and the people would be leaning on staffs due to the protracted standing during the salah. They would not leave their prayers until shortly before dawn and some of them would rush their servants to prepare food for them fearing that dawn may break soon. They would recite al-Baqarah in eight rak'at and if they would complete it in twelve rak'at, they would consider their prayers to have been very short.
Ibn Qudamah says: "Ahmad said: 'Recite of the Qur'an what is easy for the people and do not be hard upon them, especially during the short nights [i.e., during the summer].'"
[On the same subject], Al-Qadi says: 'It is not preferred to recite less than the entire Qur'an during the month: in this way, the people will be able to hear the whole Qur'an. Do not recite more than one reading of the Qur'an as this may be hard upon the people. [While reciting], consideration should be given to the condition of the people. If the people concur that they would prefer a long recital, that would be best.'
Likewise, Abu Zharr said: 'We prayed with the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam until we feared that we would miss the pre-dawn meal. And the imam would recite two hundred 'ayyahs.'"
Many hadith describe the excellence of the duha prayer.
Abu Zharr reports that the Prophet sallallahu aleihi wasallam said: "Charity is required from every part of your body daily. Every saying of 'Glory be to Allah' is charity. Every saying of 'Praise be to Allah' is charity. Every saying of 'There is no God but Allah' is charity. Every saying of 'Allah is the Greatest' is charity. Ordering the good is charity. Eradicating the evil is charity. And what suffices for that (as a charity) are the two rak'at of duha." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.
Ahmad and Abu Dawud record from Buraidah that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "In a human (body) there are 360 joints and man must make a charity for each one." The people said: "Who can do that, O Messenger of Allah?" He responded: "One may cover the mucus that one finds in the mosque or remove something harmful from the road. If one could not do that, he could pray two rak'at of duha and that will be sufficient for him."
Talking of the legal import of these hadith, ash-Shaukani says: "These two hadith point to the greatness, excellence, and importance of the duha prayer, stressing its legality as its two rak'at suffice for 360 charities. Something like this should be performed regularly and persistently. The hadith also establish the importance of saying 'Glory be to Allah', 'Praise be to Allah', and 'There is no God but Allah.' And [the importance of] ordering the good, eradicating the evil, removing the spittle, removing what is harmful from the path, and such other acts that will fulfill what is required of a person of daily charities."
An-Nawas ibn Sam'an relates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Allah said: 'Son of Adam, do not fail in performing four rak'at in the early day as it will be sufficient for the latter part of the day."' This is related by al-Hakim and at-Tabarani and its narrators are trustworthy. Ahmad, at-Tirmizhi, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa'i relate it on the authority of Na'im al-Ghatfani with a good chain. At-Tirmizhi's wording is: "Son of Adam, pray four rak'at for Me in the early day and it will be sufficient for you for the latter part of the day."
'Abdullah ibn 'Amr says: "The Messenger of Allah sent an expedition and they obtained lots of booty and returned quickly. The people talked about their quick victory, abundant booty, and quick return. At this the Messenger of Allah said: 'Shall I not guide you to a closer battle, a greater booty and a quicker return? Whoever makes wudu' and then goes to the mosque to pray duha, that is the closer battle, better booty, and quicker return."' This is related by Ahmad and at-Tabarani. Abu Ya'la has something similar to it.
Abu Hurairah says: "My friend [the Messenger of Allah] advised me to do three things: fasting three days of every month, praying the duha prayer, and praying the witr prayer before I sleep." This is related by alBukhari and Muslim.
Anas says: "During a journey, I saw the Messenger of Allah pray eight rak'at in the early day. When he finished, he said: 'I prayed my prayer wishing and fearing. I asked my Lord for three things and He gave me two and withheld one. I asked Him not to put my ummah to trial by famine and He granted that request. And I asked that they would not be overtaken by their enemies and He granted that request. And I asked that they not be split into groups and parties and He refused that request."' This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, al-Hakim, and ibn Khuzaimah who classifies it as sahih.
Fiqh 2.31: Salatul duha is a prized prayer
Salatul duha is a prized prayer and whoever wishes to earn reward should pray it, while there is no blame upon the one who does not pray it.
Abu Sa'id reports: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray duha until we thought he would never abandon it. And he would abandon it to the point that we thought he would no longer perform it." This is related by at-Tirmizhi who says it is hasan.
Anas relates that the Messenger of Allah said: "Prayer in my mosque is equal to ten thousand prayers [elsewhere]. And prayer in the inviolable mosque is equivalent to one hundred thousand prayers [elsewhere]. And prayer in the battlefield is equivalent to one million prayers [elsewhere]. And what is more than all of that is two rak'at by a slave [of Allah] during the middle of the night." This is reported by Abu ash-Shaikh, Ibn Hibban in his work ath-Thawab, and al-Munzhiri, in his book at-Targhib watTarhib, is silent about it.
The time for duha begins when the sun is about a spear's length above the horizon and it continues until the sun reaches its meridian. It is preferred to delay it until the sun has risen high and the day has become hot.
Zaid ibn Arqam relates: "The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam went to the people of Quba', and they were performing duha, and he said: 'The prayer of devotion should be observed when the young weaned camels feel the heat of the sun.'" This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmizhi .
The minimum number of rak'ah to be prayed is two, as was mentioned in the hadith of Abu Zharr. The most that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam performed was eight rak'at, whereas, the most he mentioned was twelve rak'at. Some people, such as Abu Ja'far at-Tabari, al-Mulaimi, and ar-Ruwyani, who subscribes to the Shafi' school, say there is no maximum limit to the number of rak'at that one may perform for duha.
Al-'lraqi says, in the commentary on Sunan at-Tirmizhi: "None of the companions or followers are known to have restricted it to twelve rak'at." As-Syuti agrees with it.
Sa'id ibn Mansur records that al-Hassan was asked: "Did the companions perform it?" He answered: "Yes . . . some of them would pray two rak'at and some of them would pray four rak'at. And some of them would continue until half the [early] day [had passed]."
Ibrahim an-Nakha'i reports that al-Aswad ibn Yazid was asked: "How many rak'at are to be prayed for duha?" He answered: "As many as you wish ."
Umm Hani narrates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed eight rak'at of duha and made the taslim after every two rak'at. This is related by Abu Dawud with a sahih chain.
'Aishah reports: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray four rak'at for duha and would add to it whatever Allah willed." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and ibn Majah.
Fiqh 2.32: Salatul Istikharah
It is a sunnah that, if one must choose between permissible alternatives, one may pray two non-obligatory rak'at, even if they are of the regular sunnah prayers or a prayer for entering the mosque, and so on, during any time of the day or night, and to recite therein whatever one wishes of the Qur'an after reciting al-Fatihah. Then one praises Allah and sends salutations to the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and recites the following supplication which has been recorded by al-Bukhari in Jabir's narration: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would teach us al-istikhara for all of our affairs as he would teach us a surah from the Qur'an. He said: 'If one of you is deliberating over an act, he should pray two non-obligatory rak'at and say:
"O Allah, I consult You as You are All-Knowing and I appeal to You to give me power as You are Omnipotent, I ask You for Your great favor, for You have power and I do not, and You know all of the hidden matters . O Allah ! If you know that this matter (then he should mention it) is good for me in my religion, my livelihood, and for my life in the Hereafter, (or he said: 'for my present and future life,') then make it (easy) for me. And if you know that this matter is not good for me in my religion, my livelihood and my life in the Hereafter, (or he said: 'for my present and future life,') then keep it away from me and take me away from it and choose what is good for me wherever it is and please me with it."
There is nothing authentic concerning something specific that is to be recited in the prayer nor is there any authentic report concerning how many times one should repeat it.
An-Nawawi holds that "after performing the istikharah, a person must do what he is wholeheartedly inclined to do and feels good about doing and should not insist on doing what he had desired to do before making the istikharah. And if his feelings change, he should leave what he had intended to do, otherwise he is not completely leaving the choice to Allah, and would not be honest in seeking aid from Allah's power and knowledge. Sincerity in seeking Allah's choice, means that one should completely leave what he himself had desired or determined."
Fiqh 2.33: Salatul Tasbih
'Ikrimah reports from Ibn 'Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said to 'Abbas ibn 'Abdal-Mutalib: "O 'Abbas, O Uncle, shall I not give you, shall I not present to you, shall I not donate to you, shall I not tell you ten things which, if you do, Allah will forgive your first and last sins, past and present sins, intentional and unintentional sins, private and public sins? The ten actions are: pray four rak'at, reciting in every rak'ah al-Fatihah and a surah. And when you finish the Qur'anic recitation of the first rak'ah, say, while standing, 'Subhanallah, al-hamdulillah, wa la ilaha illallah, wa Allahu Akbar' ['Glory be to Allah. All praise is due to Allah. There is no God except Allah. Allah is the greatest.'] fifteen times. Then make ruku', and while you are in ruku', say the same ten times; then stand, and say the same ten times. Then go down and make sajdah, and while you're in sajdah, say the same ten times. Then sit after the sajdah, and say the same ten times. Then make sajdah, and say the same ten times. Then sit after the second sajdah, and say the same another ten times. That is seventy-five [repetitions of the phrases] in each rak'ah. Do that in each of the four rak'at. If you can pray it once a day, do so. If you cannot, then once every Friday. If you cannot do that, then once a year. And if you cannot do that then once in your life." This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaimah in his sahih, and at-Tabarani. About this hadith al-Munzhiri says: "This hadith has been related through many chains and from a number of companions. The best of them is this one from 'Ikrimah. A group of scholars have graded it to be sahih, including al-Hafez Abu Bakr al-'Ajari, (al-Munzhiri's teachers), Abu Muhammad 'Abdurrahim al-Misri, and Abu al-Hassan al-Maqdisi." Ibn alMubarak says: "The tasbih prayer is a greatly desired act and it is desirable that one should punctually observe it and never neglect it.
Ahmad has on sound authority reported from Abu Darda that the Prophet Sallallahu Alehi wasallam said: "He who makes wudu, and does it properly, then prays two rak'at, Allah will grant him whatever he may pray for, sooner or later."
Fiqh 2.34: Salatul Taubah, the prayer of penitence
Abu Bakr reports: "I heard the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam saying: 'Allah forgives the man who commits a sin (then feels ashamed), purifies himself, offers a prayer and seeks His forgiveness.' Then he recited the 'ayyah: 'And those who, when they do an evil thing or wrong themselves, remember Allah and implore forgiveness for their sins - and who can forgive sins except Allah? - and will not knowingly repeat (the wrong) they did. The reward of such will be forgiveness from their Lord, and gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever- a bountiful reward for workers."' [al-'lmran: 135-136]. This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan.
At-Tabarani records in al-Mu'jam al-Kabir, with a hasan chain, from Abu ad-Darda' that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever makes wudu' and perfects the wudu' and then stands and prays two rak'at or four rak'at, obligatory or non-obligatory, and perfects therein his ruku' and sujjud and then asks for Allah's forgiveness, he will be forgiven."
The scholars agree that the prayer of the eclipses is a sunnah mu'akkadah, a stressed one, which is to be performed by both men and women. It is best to pray it in congregation although the congregation is not a condition for it. The people are called to it by announcing as-salatu jami'ah "prayer in congregation." The majority of the scholars hold that it is to consist of two rak'at and that in every rak'ah one is to perform two bowings (ruku') instead of the customary one.
'Aishah narrates: "There was a solar eclipse during the time of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and the Prophet went to the mosque, and he stood and made the takbir, and he put the people in rows behind him, and he made a lengthy recital during the salah. Next, he made the takbir and made a long ruku', but it was not as long as the recital. Following that, he raised his head, saying: 'Allah hears him who praises Him. And to You, our Lord, belongs the praise.' Afterward, he stood and made another long recital but it was shorter than the first one. Again, he made the takbir and made a ruku' that was shorter than the first one. Then, again he said: 'Allah hears him who praises Him. And to You, our Lord, belongs the praise.' After this, he prostrated. He did the same in the next rak'ah and finished four ruku' and four sujjud. The sun appeared again before he finished. Finally, he stood and addressed the people and praised Allah as He deserves it and said: 'The sun and the moon are two signs from among Allah's signs and there is no eclipse due to someone's death or life. If you see them occurring, hurry to pray.'" This is related by alBukhari and Muslim.
Bukhari and Muslim also record that Ibn 'Abbas said: "There was a solar eclipse during the life time of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and he prayed with a long standing, similar to what it takes to recite alBaqarah. Then, he made a long ruku'. After which, he stood and made another long recital but shorter than the first one. Again he went into ruku', but for a shorter time than in the first one. Following this, he made sajdah [twice]. Next he made another long standing (qiyam) which was also not as long as the first. After that, he made another lengthy ruku' but it was not as long as the first one. Again, he made another long qiyam [and recital] but it was not as long as the first one. After which, he made another lengthy ruku' but it was not as long as the previous one. Following this, he went into sajdah [and so on]. When he had finished, the sun had appeared. He concluded his prayer and said: 'The sun and the moon are two signs from the signs of Allah, and there is no eclipse due to the death or life of anyone. If you see it, make remembrance of Allah.'" Grading these reports, Ibn Abdul Barr says: "These two hadith are the most authentic reports on this topic."
Ibn al-Qayyim observes: "The authentic, clear, and prepondering sunnah concerning salatul kasuf is that the ruku' is to be repeated [twice] in every rak'ah. This is based on the hadith from 'Aishah, Ibn 'Abbas, Jabir, Ubayy ibn Ka'b, 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas, and Abu Musa alAsh'ari. They all report that the Prophet repeated the ruku' in one rak'ah. Those who mention the repeating of the ruku' are more in number, weightier, and closer to the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam than those who do not mention it." This is the opinion of Malik, ash-Shaf'i, and Ahmad.
Abu Hanifah is of the opinion that salatul Kasuf consists of two rak'at, similar to salatul 'id and jumu'ah, based on the hadith of An-Nu'man ibn Bashir who says: "The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed the salatul kasuf with us like one of your prayers. He went into ruku' and performed sajdah, praying two rak'at by two rak'at, and supplicated to Allah until the sun reappeared clearly again."
In the hadith from Qabsah al-Hillali, the Prophet said: "If you see that [i.e., an eclipse], pray as you pray the obligatory prayer." This is related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i.
The reciting of al-Fatihah is obligatory in each rak'ah, and one may recite whatever one wishes to, after Al-Fatihah. It is allowed to make the recital audible or silent, but al-Bukhari says: "Audible recital is more proper. "
Fiqh 2.36: The time for al-kasuf is from the beginning of the eclipse until the eclipse finishes
The prayer of the lunar eclipse is similar to that of the solar eclipse. Al-Hassan al-Basri reports: "There was a solar eclipse and Ibn 'Abbas, the governor of Basra, went out and prayed two rak'at with two ruku' in each rak'ah. Then, he mounted his mount and said: 'I prayed as I have seen the Prophet praying.'" This is related by ash-Shaf'i in his Musnad.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from 'Aishah that the Messenger of Allah said: "The sun and the moon are two signs from among Allah's signs and there is no eclipse due to the life or death of anyone. If you see that [an eclipse] supplicate to Allah, extol His greatness, give charity and pray." They also record from Abu Musa that there was a solar eclipse and the Prophet said: "If you see something of this nature, rush to the remembrance of Allah, supplicating Him and asking His forgiveness."
This prayer is taken recourse to when seeking rain from Allah during times of drought. It may be performed in one of the following manners:
-1- The imam prays, with the followers, two rak'at during any time except those times in which it is not desirable to pray. In the first rak'ah, the imam recites al-A'la after al-Fatihah. And in the second rak'ah, he reads al-Ghashiyah after al-Fatihah, and he delivers a khutbah before or after the salah. As soon as he finishes the khutbah, the people present should turn their outer garments around, each placing its left side on his right side and its right side on his left, face the qiblah, supplicate Allah and raise their hands while doing so.
Ibn 'Abbas reports: "The Messenger of Allah went out [to make the salatul istisqa'] wearing old clothes, in a humble and lowly manner, and prayed two rak'at as he prayed the 'id, but he did not give a similar khutbah." This is related by the five. At-Tirmizhi, Abu 'Awanah, and Ibn Hibban grade it sahih.
'Aishah says: "The people complained to the Messenger of Allah about lack of rain, so he gave orders for a pulpit, and when it was set up for him, he appointed a day for the people to gather. He came out on that day when the sun had just appeared and sat down on the pulpit. He extolled Allah's greatness and praised Him. Then he said: 'You have complained of drought in your areas and of delay in receiving rain at the beginning of its season, but you have been ordered by Allah to supplicate Him and He has promised that He would answer your prayers.' Then he said: 'All praise is for Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful, the King of the Day of Judgment. There is no God but Allah Who does what He wishes. O Allah, there is no God except Thee. You are the Self-sufficient and we are the poor. Send down rain upon us and make it a source of strength for us and satisfaction for us.' He then raised his hands and kept raising them till the whiteness of his armpits could be seen.
After this, he turned his back to the people and inverted his cloak, keeping his hands raised. Finally, he faced the people, descended from the pulpit, and prayed two rak'at. At that time Allah produced a cloud, thunder, and lightning. And, by Allah's permission, it rained and before he reached the mosque there was flooding. Then he saw how quickly the people were running for shelter, he laughed until his molar teeth could be seen. He said: 'I bear witness that Allah has power over all things and I am Allah's slave and Messenger.'" This is related by al-Hakim who classifies it to be sahih and by Abu Dawud who says: "This hadith is ghareeb and its chain is good."
It is furthermore related from 'Ibad ibn Tamim from his uncle 'Abdullah ibn Zaid al-Mazni that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam went out to pray salatul istisqa' and prayed two rak'at reciting them aloud. This is related by the group. And Abu Hurairah says: "The Prophet of Allah went out one day to make salatul ishtisqa' and prayed two rak'at with us without any azhan or iqamah. Then, he addressed us and supplicated Allah and turned his face toward the qiblah, with his hands raised. Next, he reversed his cloak, placing its left side on his right side and its right side on his left side." This is related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi.
-2- The supplication for rain can also be made on the occasion of salatul jumu'ah. In this case, the imam makes supplications during khutbatul jumu'ah with the people of the congregation saying (Ameen).
Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from Shuraik on the authority of Anas that a man entered the mosque on Friday while the Prophet was addressing the people. The man said: "O Messenger of Allah, our wealth has been destroyed and we have no transport to the market place. Supplicate for us for rain." The Prophet raised his hands and said: "O Allah, give us rain. O Allah, give us rain. O Allah, give us rain." Anas said: "By Allah, at that time there were no clouds in the sky and there was no house or building between us and the mountain. From behind the mountain came a cloud looking like a shield. By the time it reached the middle of the sky, it burst and started to rain. By Allah, we did not see the sun for one week. Then, on the next Friday, a man entered the mosque from that (same) door while the Prophet was making the address. The man faced the Prophet and said: 'Our livestock is dead and the paths are unpassable. Ask Allah to make it stop.' The Prophet raised his hands and said: 'O Allah, around us and not upon us. O Allah, make it upon the hills, small mountains, bottom of the valleys, and plantations.' The rain stopped and we walked out in the sunshine."
-3- One may also make a supplication (for rain) without it being Friday and regardless of whether or not the prayer takes place inside or outside the mosque. Ibn Majah and Abu 'Awanah record that Ibn 'Abbas said: "A Bedouin came to the Messenger of Allah and said: 'O Messenger of Allah, I come to you from a people whose shepherds do not have any fodder and whose prize stallion cannot move its tail due to the [drought].' The Prophet mounted the pulpit, praised Allah and said: 'O Allah, give us saving rain which leads to something good and which is productive - a general heavy rain - now and not later.' Then, he descended from the pulpit. People came from every direction saying that it was raining." This is reported by Ibn Majah and Abu 'Awanah and its chain is sound, but Ibn Hajar is silent about it in his Al-Talkhis.
Shurahbil ibn as-Simt said to Ka'b ibn Murrah: "O Ka'b, relate to us something from the Messenger of Allah." Ka'b said: "When a man came and said to the Prophet of Allah, 'Seek rain for the tribe of Muzhar,' I heard the Prophet say: 'You are a bold man. You want me to seek rain for the tribe of Muzhar?' The man said: 'O Messenger of Allah, you have sought victory from Allah and He gave you victory. You supplicated Allah and He answered you.' The Messenger of Allah raised his hands and said: 'O Allah, give us a saving rain, good and productive, general and heavy, now and not later, beneficial and not harmful.' Allah responded to his supplication. It was not long before the people came complaining about the profusion of rain, and damage to their dwellings. The Messenger of Allah raised his hands and said: 'O Allah, around us and not upon us.' The clouds began dispersing left and right." This is related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, al-Baihaqi, Ibn Shaibah and al-Hakim. The later grades this hadith as hasan sahih and holds that its chain meets the conditions of al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ash-Sha'biy says: "'Umar went out to make ishsqa' and he did no more than seeking Allah's forgiveness. The people said: 'We did not see you making ishsqa'.' He said: 'I sought rain by what makes it descend (i.e., istighfar or seeking forgiveness of Allah), unlike those (Arabs of days of ignorance) who sought it by the stars of the sky.' Then, he recited the following two 'ayat: 'Seek forgiveness of your Lord. Lo! He is Ever-Forgiving. He will let loose the sky for you in plenteous rain.' and: 'Ask forgiveness of your Lord, and turn to Him (in repentance): He will send you the skies pouring abundant rain.'" This is related by Abu Sa'id in his Sunan, 'Abdurrazzaq, al-Baihaqi, and Ibn abi Shaibah.
Fiqh 2.39: Some supplications for rain
The following are some of the supplications that have been transmitted.
Ash-Shaf'i states that it has been related from Salim ibn 'Abdullah, on the authority of his father that the Prophet would say for ishsqa': "O Allah, give us a saving rain, productive, plentiful, general, continuous. O Allah, give us rain and do not make us among the despondent. O Allah, (Your) slaves, land, animals, and (Your) creation all are suffering and seek protection. And we do not complain except to You. O Allah, let our crops grow, and let the udders be refilled. Give us from the blessings of the sky and grow for us from the blessings of the earth. O Allah, remove from us the hardship, starvation,and barrenness and remove the affliction from us as no one removes afflictions save Thee. O Allah, we seek Your forgiveness as You are the Forgiving, and send upon us plenteous rains." Ash-Shaf'i said: "I prefer that the imam would supplicate with that (prayer). "
Sa'd reported that for ishsqa', the Prophet would supplicate: "O Allah, let us be covered with thick clouds that have abundant and beneficial rain, frequently making a light rain upon us and sprinkling upon us with lightning. O Allah, You are full of majesty, bounty and Honour." This is related by Abu 'Awanah in his Sahih.
'Amr ibn Shuaib relates from his father, on the authority of his grandfather, that for istisqa', the Prophet would say: "O Allah, provide water for Your slaves and Your cattle, display Your mercy and give life to Your dead lands." This is related by Abu Dawud.
It is preferred for the one who is making this supplication to raise his hands with the back of his hands toward the sky. Muslim records from Anas that the Prophet would point with the back of his hands during ishsqa '.
It is also preferred, upon seeing the rain, to say: "O Allah, make it a beneficial rain" and he should uncover part of his body to the rain. On the other hand, if one fears that there is too much rain, one should say: "O Allah give us mercy and do not give us punishment, calamaties, destruction or flooding. O Allah, make it upon the woods, farms and trees. Make it around us and not upon us."
All of this is authentic and confirmed from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam.
Fiqh 2.40: The Prostration During the Qur'anic Recitation
Whoever recites an "'ayyah of prostration (sajdah)" or hears an "'ayyah of prostration" should preferably pronounce the takbir and prostrate and then make the takbir again and rise from the prostration. This is called "the prostration of recital." There is no tashahud or taslim with the sajdah. Naf'i relates that Ibn 'Umar said: "The Prophet would recite the Qur'an to us and when he came to an ''ayyah of sajdah,' he would make the takbir and go into sajdah and we would make the sajdah." This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and al-Hakim. The later holds it to be sahih according to al-Bukhari's and Muslim's criteria. Abu Dawud says: "Abdurrazzaq said: 'At-Thauri was amazed by that hadith.' He was amazed by it because it mentions the takbir." 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said: "If you read an 'ayyah of sajdah', then make the takbir and prostrate. And when you raise your head, make the takbir."
Fiqh 2.41: Excellence of prostration during the Quranic recitation
Abu Hurairah narrates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If a son of Adam recites an 'ayyah of prostration and prostrates, the Satan departs from him and cries: 'O woe, he was ordered to prostrate and he did, so for him is paradise. I was ordered to prostrate and I disobeyed, so for me is the Hell.'"
The majority of the scholars say that prostrations for the "'ayyat of sajdah" are sunnah for the one who recites the 'ayyah and for the one who hears it. This is based on what al-Bukhari recorded from 'Umar who recited an-Nahl upon the minbar one Friday, until he came to the "'ayyah of sajdah," and he descended from the pulpit and prostrated along with the people. On the next Friday, he recited the same and when he came to the 'ayyah of sajdah, he said: "O people, we have not been ordered to prostrate. Whoever does so has acted correctly, while, there is no sin upon one who does not do so." In another narration it is stated: "Allah has not forced upon us the sajdah but if one wishes to do so (he may make a prostration.)"
In addition, the group, except for Ibn Majah, records that Zaid ibn Thabit said: "I recited an-Najm to the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and he did not prostrate during it." Ad-Daraqutni records it and observes: "None of us prostrated during it."
Ibn Hajar al-Asqallani says that the strongest opinion is that he left it to show that it is permissible not to do it. Shaf'i holds a similar view. This opinion is supported by what is recorded by al-Bazzar and adDaraqutni from Abu Hurairah who says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam recited an-Najm and prostrated and we prostrated with him." (In Fath al-Bari, Ibn Hajar holds that its narrators are trustworthy.) Ibn Mas'ud moreover reported that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam recited anNajm and prostrated, and all of the people with him prostrated, save one old man from the Quraish who simply lifted some pebbles or dirt to his forehead and said: "That is sufficient for me." Ibn Mas'ud said: "After [some time] I found that he was killed while still an unbeliever." This is recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Fiqh 2.42: The "ayyah of prostration"
There are fifteen places in the Qur'an at which one is to prostrate. 'Amr ibn al-'Aas relates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam recited fifteen 'ayyat of prostration in the Qur'an, three coming from the Mufassal and two from surah al-Hajj. This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim, and ad-Daraqutni. Al-Munzhiri and an-Nawawi say it is hasan. The fifteen 'ayyat are:
-1- "Lo! Those who are with thy Lord are not too proud to do Him service, but they praise Him and prostrate to Him" (al-A'raf 206).
-2- "And unto Allah falls prostrate whoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, as do their shadows in the morning and the evening hours" (ar-Ra'd 15).
-3- "And unto Allah does whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth of living creatures make prostration, and the angels (also) and they are not proud" (an-Nahl 49).
-4- "Say: Believe therein or believe not, lo! Those who were given knowledge before it, when it is read unto them, they fall down prostrate on their faces, adoring" (al-lsra' 107).
-5- "When the revelations of the Beneficent were recited unto them, they prostrated, adoring and weeping" (Maryam 58).
-6- "Haven't you seen that unto Allah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is in the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the hills, and the trees, and the beasts, and many of mankind, while there are many unto whom the doom is justly due. He whom Allah scorns, there is none to give him honor. Lo! Allah does what he wills" (al-Hajj 18).
-7- "O you who believe, bow down and prostrate yourselves, and worship your Lord and do good, that you may prosper" (al-Hajj 77).
-8- "And when it is said unto them: 'Prostrate unto the Beneficent,' they say: 'And what is the Beneficent'? Are we to prostrate to whatever you bid us?' And it increases aversion in them" (al-Furqan 60).
-9- "So they prostrate not to Allah! [He] who brings forth the hidden in the heavens and the earth. And He knows what you hide and what you proclaim" (an-Naml 25).
-10- "Only those who believe in Our revelations who, when they are reminded of them, fall down prostrate and hymn the praise of their Lord and who are not scornful" (as-Sajdah 15).
-11- "And David guessed that we had tried him, and he sought forgiveness of his Lord, and he bowed himself and fell down prostrate and repented" (Sad 24).
-12- "And of His portents are the night and the day and the sun and the moon. Prostrate not to the sun or the moon, but prostrate unto Allah who created them, if it is Him you worship" (Ha-Mim 37).
-13- "Rather prostrate before Allah and serve Him" (an-Najm 62).
-14- "And, when the Qur'an is recited unto them, they do not prostrate (unto Allah)" (al-Inshiqaq 21).
-15- "But prostrate yourself and draw near (unto Allah)" (al-'Alaq 19).
Fiqh 2.43: The conditions for Prostration of Recital
The majority of the scholars lay down the same conditions and prerequisites for the prostration of recital as they do for the salah, with respect to purity, facing the qiblah, and covering the 'aurah. Ash-Shaukani says: "There is no hadith concerning prostrations of recital which proves that to prostrate one must be in a state of purity [free from major or minor defilements]. The people who were with him [the Prophet] prostrated with him and he did not order any of them to perform ablution, and it is hard to believe that they all were in a state of purity. Furthermore, the polytheists prostrated with him and they are impure, and their ablution would not be acceptable. Al-Bukhari relates from Ibn 'Umar that he would prostrate even when not free of minor impurities. Ibn Abi Shaibah recorded the same from him. As for the report from al-Baihaqi, (with a chain that Ibn Hajar calls sahih), which says: 'A man is not to prostrate unless he is in a state of purity.' These reports can be reconciliated by Ibn Hajar's statement that this (either) refers to a major defilement or when an option is available, whereas in the first case it depends on (presence of defilement and) the need to wash. Similarly, there is no hadith which states that the clothes or place need to be pure. Concerning covering the 'aurah and facing the qiblah if possible, there is no disagreement.
Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Bari: "No one agrees with Ibn 'Umar that one may make the sajdah without being clean of minor impurities, save ashSha'biy. Ibn Abi Shaibah related it from him with a sahih chain. He also recorded from Abu 'Abdurrahman as-Salmi that he would recite an 'ayyah of sajdah and then he would prostrate without ablution or facing the qiblah and while walking and just motioning only. Some among the Prophet's household agree with Ibn 'Umar.
Fiqh 2.44: Supplications during the prostration
Whoever makes this prostration may supplicate whatever he wishes. There is nothing authentic from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam on this point except for the hadith from 'Aishah who said: "When the Prophet made the sajdah of the Qur'anic recital, he would say: 'I have prostrated my face to the One Who created it and brought forth its hearing and seeing by His might and power. Blessed be Allah, the best of Creators.'" This is related by the five, except Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim. At-Tirmizhi and Ibn as-Sakan grade it sahih. The later however adds that at the end the Prophet would say, three times, what he always said in his sujjud: "Glory be to my Lord, the Most High," that is, if he was making the sujjud of recital during a prayer.
It is allowed for the imam or the one praying individually to recite "'ayyah of sajdah" during the salah, even if the recital is audible (jahriyyah) or inaudible (siriyyah), and he should prostrate, during the salah, after reading such 'ayat. Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from Abu Raf'i who said: "I prayed salatul 'isha with Abu Hurairah and he recited Izhas-sama'u un-shaqqat [al-Inshiqaq] and he prostrated during the prayer. I asked: 'O Abu Hurairah, what prostration is this?' he said: 'I made a prostration when reciting (this surah) behind Abu al-Qasim (Prophet), and since then I never stopped making a sajdah whenever I recite it."' Al-Hakim relates, from Ibn 'Umar, with a sound chain that meets the criteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim, saying that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wassalam made a sajdah during the first rak'ah of the noon prayer and his companions were of the opinion that he had recited surah as-Sajdah.
An-Nawawi says: "It is not disliked for the imam to recite 'ayat of sajdah, according to our school, or for the one who prays individually. And it does not matter if the recital is audible or inaudible. And he should make sajdah after he recites them."
Malik holds: "In general it is disliked." Abu Hanifah's opinion is that: "It is disliked during the silent recitals but not during the audible recitals." The author of al-Bahr maintains: "According to our school, it is preferred to delay the sajdah until after he [the imam] makes the taslim in order not to confuse the people praying behind him."
Fiqh 2.45: Combining a number of sujjud
One may combine a number of sujjud and make only one sajdah if one recites an "'ayyah of sajdah" over and over, or one hears it being recited over and over, provided one delays the sajdah until all the recitals are finished. Some say that if one prostrates after the first recital, it will be sufficient. Others hold that one should prostrate again since the cause for the prostration is reintroduced.
The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that the sajdah is to be performed right after the recital or hearing of the 'ayyah. Delaying such a sajdah does not rescind it. If an extended period of time lapses between recitation of an 'ayah and the actual sajdah, one need not do it, for it does not have to be made up for.
The majority of the scholars say that it is preferred to make prostrations of thankfulness (shukr) when one receives a bounty or is rescued from some trial. Abu Bakr reports that, when the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam received something which pleased him or some glad tidings, he would make the sajdah in thanks to Allah. This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi who says it is hasan.
And al-Baihaqi records, with a chain that meets al-Bukhari's conditions, that when 'Ali wrote to the Messenger of Allah, informing him that Hamazhan had embraced Islam, the Prophet prostrated, and when he raised his head, he said: "Peace be upon Hamazhan, peace be upon Hamazhan."
'Abdurrahman ibn 'Auf relates that the Messenger of Allah went out once and he followed him until he entered a grove of palm trees and prostrated. His prostration was so long that 'Abdurrahman feared that Allah had taken his soul. 'Abdurrahman came to look at him and he raised his head and said: "What is wrong, Abdurrahman'?" Abdurrahman mentioned what had happened, and he said: "Gabriel alehi as-salam came to me and said: 'Shall I not give you glad tidings'? Allah says to you, Whoever prays upon you, I pray upon him. Whoever salutes you, I salute him.' Therefore, I prostrated to Allah in thanks." This is related by Ahmad and by AlHakim who says: "It is sahih according to the criterion of al-Bukhari and Muslim. And I do not know anything more authentic than that."
Al-Bukhari records that Ka'b ibn Malik made a sajdah when he received the news that Allah had accepted his repentance. Ahmad records that 'Ali performed the sajdah when he heard the news that Zhul-Thudayyah of the Khawarij was killed. Also, as mentioned before, Sa'id ibn Mansur recorded that Abu Bakr made sajdah in thankfulness when Musailimah was killed.
The prostration of thankfulness is bound by the same requirements as the prostration in prayer, while some disagree as it is not a prayer. The author of Fath al-'Alam remarks: "This latter opinion is closer to being correct." Ash-Shaukani said: "There is nothing in the hadith to prove that ablution and purity of the clothes and place are required for sajdat-ushshukr. And that is the opinion of Imam Yahya and Abu Talib. And these hadith are silent about any takbir being made with the prostration. In alBahr it is stated that there is a takbir. Imam Yahya says: 'One is not to make the prostration of thankfulness during a prayer as it is not part of the prayer.'"
Fiqh 2.46: Prostrations of forgetfulness during the prayer
It is confirmed that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam sometimes forgot something in the salah. It is also true that he said: "I am a human being and forget like you forget. If I forget, remind me." There are specific points concerning such prostrations and they are presented below.
The "prostrations of forgetfulness" (sujjud us-sahu) are two prostrations which a person makes before the taslim. All of this has been confirmed from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam. In the sahih, it is recorded from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Prophet said: "If one of you has some doubts during his salah and he does not recall (the number of rak'at) he has prayed, three or four, then he can put an end to his doubt by performing salah according to what he was certain of [the lesser amount] and then making two sujjud before the taslim." In the story of Zhul-Yadain, in the two Sahihs, we are told the Prophet sallallahu alehi wassalam made the prostrations after the taslim.
Ash-Shaukani says: "The best that is stated on this subject is that one must follow what the Prophet said or did, respecting the sujjud before or after the taslim. If one does something that necessitates sujjud before the taslim, one should make them before the taslim, and if one does something requiring sujjud after the taslim, then one should make them after the taslim. As for those acts of forgetfulness that are not related to any specific time either before or after the taslim, one may choose to make the prostrations before or after the taslim in cases of addition or reduction in the salah. This is based on what Muslim recorded in his Sahih from Ibn Mas'ud that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: 'If one adds or decreases something from his salah, he should make two sujjud."'
Fiqh 2.47: When to perform these prostrations of forgetfulness
The "sujjud us-sahu" are to be performed in the following circumstances:
-1- If a person makes the taslim before he actually completes the prayers. Ibn Sireen relates from Abu Hurairah who said: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed either zuhr or 'asr salah with us and he prayed only two rak'at and made the taslim. He got up and leaned against a piece of wood in the mosque as if he was angry. He put his right hand on his left and interlocked his fingers. Then, he placed his cheek on the back of his left hand. And some people left the mosque in a hurry. And they said: 'The prayer has been shortened?' Among the people were Abu Bakr and 'Umar, and they were shy to speak to him. One of the people, who was called Zhul-Yadain, said: 'O Messenger of Allah have you forgotten or has the prayer been shortened?' He answered: 'I have not forgotten and it has not been shortened.' Then he asked: 'Is it as Zhul-Yadain has said?' The people answered in the affirmative...At that, he led the people in what he had ommitted and made the taslim. After which he made the takbir and prostrated the way he usually prostrated or perhaps even longer. Next, he raised his head and made the takbir. Then, he made the takbir [again] and prostrated, like one of his customary sujjud or perhaps even longer, and finally, he raised his head." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Ata' relates that Ibn az-Zubair prayed maghrib and made the taslim after two rak'at and then he stood up and wanted to kiss the black stone, when the people tried to correct him he said: "What is the matter with you?" Then he prayed what he had left out and performed two sujjud. When this was mentioned to Ibn 'Abbas, he said that it was not far from the sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam. This is related by Ahmad, al-Bazzar, and at-Tabarani.
-2- In the case of an addition to the prayer. Ibn Mas'ud narrates that the Prophet prayed five rak'at and the people asked him: "Has there been an addition to the prayer?" He asked: "Why do you say that?" They replied: "You prayed five rak'at" Then he made two sujJud after he had made the taslim. This is related by the group. This hadith proves that the prayer of one who prays five rak'at out of forgetfulness, without sitting during the fourth rak'ah, is acceptable.
-3- In the case of forgetting the first tashahud or one of the other sunnah acts of the prayer. Ibn Buhainah narrates that the Prophet stood after two rak'at. The people tried to correct him but he continued. When he finished his salah, he made two sujjud and made the taslim. This is related by the group.' This hadith shows that one who forgets the first sitting but is reminded of it and he recalls it before he completely stands should return and sit, but if he is already completely standing, he should not sit down. This is supported by what Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah recorded from al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah, that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If one of you stands after two rak'at and he has not completely stood, then he should sit. If he is already completely standing, he should not sit and he should make two sujjud of forgetfulness."
-4- In the case of doubt over whether or not one performed some act of the prayer. 'Abdurrahman ibn 'Auf reported that he heard the Prophet say: "If one of you has some doubt during his salah and he does not know if he prayed one rak'ah or two, he should take it to have been just one. If he does not know if he prayed two rak'at or three, he should take it to have been just two. If he does not know if he prayed three rak'at or four, he should take it to have been just three. [In all such cases] at the end of his prayer, while sitting, he should make two sujjud before the taslim." This is related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi. The latter grades it sahih.
In one narration, it is stated: "Whoever prays and has some doubt that he was short of the complete prayer, he should continue praying until he suspects that he has added something to the prayer [with respect to the number of rak'at that he has prayed]." Abu Sa'id al-Khudri narrated that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If one of you has some doubts during his prayer and does not know if he prayed three or four [rak'at], then he should remove his doubt by praying according to the amount that he is certain he had performed and then make two sujjud before the taslim. If he had prayed five rak'at, the two sujjud would make it even. If he had prayed a complete four rak'at [when he had finished], they would be in defiance of the Satan." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim. These two ahadith prove what the majority of the scholars have said, namely, if one has some doubt concerning the number of rak'at one has prayed, one should act according to the amount that one is certain to have prayed (the lesser amount) and then make two sujjud before the taslim.
Fiqh 2.49: Congregational Prayer
Performing the prayers in congregation is a sunnah mu'akkadah. Many ahadith discuss the superiority and excellence of prayers in congregation. Such ahadith include the following:
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Prayer in congregation is superior to a prayer performed individually by twenty-seven degrees." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The prayer of a man in congregation is twenty-five times more superior (in reward) to his prayer in his house or market - and this is because he makes the wudu' and perfects it and goes to the mosque with the sole purpose of performing the salah. He does not take a step without being raised a degree and having one of his sins erased. When he prays, as long as he does not lose his wudu, the angels keep on praying [for him] 'O Allah, bless him. O Allah, have mercy on him.' And he is considered in salah as long as he is waiting for the salah." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim, and it is presented in al-Bukhari's wording.
Abu Hurairah also reports that a blind man said to the Prophet: "O Messenger of Allah, I have no guide to guide me to the mosque." He asked the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam for permission to pray in his house and the Prophet gave it to him. Then, when he turned to go, the Prophet called him and said: "Do you hear the call to prayer?" The blind man said "yes." The Prophet then said: "Then respond to it!" [by coming to the mosque.] This is related by Muslim.
Abu Hurairah also reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "By Him in whose hand is my soul! I have considered ordering a fire to be kindled and then ask someone to lead the people in salah. And then go to the men [who did not attend the prayer] and burn their houses over them." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud says: "If anyone would like to meet Allah tomorrow as a Muslim, he should persevere in abserving these five prayers whenever the call for them is made, for Allah has chosen for your Prophet the way of right guidance. And the [five prayers in congregation] are part of this right guidance. If you were to pray them in your houses, as this man who stays behind in his house, you would be leaving a sunnah of your Prophet. If you leave the sunnah of your Prophet, you would go astray. Verily, I have seen a time when no one stayed away from them [the congregational prayers] except for the hypocrites who were well known for their hypocrisy. A man would be brought, supported by two people [due to his weakness] until he was placed in a row." This is related by Muslim.
Abu ad-Darda' reports that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If there are three men in a village or desert and salah is not established among them, then the Satan takes mastery over them. So be with the congregation since the wolf devours the remote (stray) sheep." This is related by Abu Dawud with a hasan chain.
Fiqh 2.50: Women and congregational prayers
It is better for women to pray in their houses than to attend congregational prayers. However, they may go to the mosque and attend the congregational prayer if they avoid wearing or using any attractive or tempting adornment or perfume.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Do not prevent the women from going to the mosques, although their houses are better for them." Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet said: "Do not keep the slave girls of Allah from the mosques of Allah. And they are to go out unperfumed." These two ahadith were related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Abu Hurairah also reports that the Prophet said: "Any woman who uses some scent should not be present with us during the night prayer." This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa'i with a hasan chain.
As stated earlier, it is better for women to pray in their houses. Ahmad and at-Tabarani record that Umm Humaid as-Sa'diyah came to the Messenger of Allah and said: "O Messenger of Allah, I love to pray with you." The Prophet said: "I am aware of that, but your salah in your residence is better for you than your salah in your people's mosque. And your salah in your people's mosque is better than your salah in the [larger] congregational Mosque."