Fiqh 2.105: Different ways of offering salatul Khauf:
-1- If the enemy is not in the direction of the qiblah, then the imam should lead a group in the performance of one rak'ah after which he should wait until they complete the second rak'ah by themselves, and then, they should go and face the enemy. And the second group should come and the imam would lead them in salah while he is performing his second rak'ah. He should again wait for them to complete another rak'ah by themselves before leading them in the salutations.
Saleh ibn Khawat relates from Saleh ibn Abu Khaithimah that a group lined up with the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam while another group faced the enemy. He prayed one rak'ah with the group that was with him and remained standing while they finished the salah and left and faced the enemy. The second group came and prayed the remaining rak'ah with him, then he stayed sitting until they had completed their prayers individually, after which he led them in making the taslim. This is related by the group, except for Ibn Majah.
-2- If the enemy is not in the direction of the qiblah, then, the imam prays one rak'ah with one group of the army while the other group faces the enemy, after which the two groups exchange places, and the imam prays one rak'ah with the second group. The members of each group will complete one rak'ah of their prayers on their own.
Ibn 'Umar says: "The Messenger of Allah prayed one rak'ah with one group while the other group faced the enemy, [At that point, those who had prayed] took the place of their companions facing the enemy and the second group came and prayed one rak'ah with the Prophet and then he made the taslim. Then each group made (the remaining) one rak'ah." This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Ahmad. It is apparent that the second group completed their salah after the imam made the taslim without discontinuing their salah (i.e., for them, it was two continuous rak'at), and the first group did not complete their salah until the second group had completed their salah and went back to face the enemy. Ibn Mas'ud says: "Then, he made the taslim and they stood up to finish the second rak'ah individually and, then they made their taslim."
-3- The imam prays two rak'at with each group, the first two rak'at being his fard salah and the latter two being nafl. It is allowed for one who is making a nafl to lead others in salah who are praying fard. Jabir reports that the Prophet prayed two rak'at with one group of his companions and then another two rak'at with another group and then he made the taslim. This is related by ash-Shaf'i and an-Nasa'i.
Abu Dawud, Ahmad, and an-Nasa'i record that he said: "The Prophet prayed the salatul Khauf with us, and he prayed two rak'at with some of his companions, and then the others came and took their places and he prayed two rak'at with them, and he made the taslim. So, the Prophet prayed four rak'at and the people prayed two rak'at each."
Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim record that he said: "We were with the Prophet during the campaign of Zhat al-Riqa and the salah was made, and he prayed two rak'at with one group and then they withdrew, and he led the other group in two rak'at. The Prophet prayed four rak'at and the people prayed two rak'at."
-4- If the enemy is in the direction of the qiblah, then the imam leads both of the groups in salah at the same time and they share in guarding against the enemy, and they follow the imam in every one of his actions until he performs sajdah, in which case one group will make the sajdah with him and the other will wait until they are finished and then perform their own sujjud. After the first rak'ah is finished, the people in front will move to the back and those in the back will move to the front.
Jabir said: "I prayed salatul khauf (fear prayer) with the Prophet. He arranged us in two rows behind him. The enemy was between us and the qiblah. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam made the takbir and we all made the takbir. He performed the ruku' and we all made the ruku'. Then, he raised his head from the ruku' and we all raised our heads from the ruku'. Next he went down for sajdah as well as the row closest to him, while the back row stood facing the enemy until the Prophet and the first row had completed their prostrations, after which the back row made sajdah and then stood [after completing their sajjud]. Following this, those in the back row moved to the front while those in the front row moved to the back. The Prophet performed the ruku' and we all made ruku'. Then, he raised his head and we raised our heads from ruku. Afterward, he made the sajdah and the row that was previously in the back during the first rak'ah prostrated with him while the [new] back row stood facing the enemy. When the Prophet and the [new] front row had completed their sujjud, the [new] back row made the sujjud. Finally, the Prophet made the taslim and we all made the taslim. This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi.
-5- Both of the groups begin the prayer with the imam, and then one group would guard against the enemy while the other group would pray one rak'ah with the imam, after which they would face the enemy while the other group would come and pray one rak'ah by themselves (individually) while the imam is standing. Then, they would join him in what is the imam's and their second rak'ah. At that point, the group which had gone to face the enemy would come and pray one rak'ah (their second) individually while the others would be sitting (in salah waiting for them to sit in their second rak'ah), after which the imam would make the taslim and both groups would make the taslim together [behind the imam].
Abu Huraira reports: "I prayed salatul khauf with the Messenger of Allah during the year of the Battle of Najd. He stood to pray 'asr and one group stood with him while the other group was faced the enemy with their backs toward the qiblah. When he made the takbir, all the people made the takbir- that is, those with him and those facing the enemy. Then, he performed one rak'ah and the group with him also performed their ruku' and sujjud with him while the others were still facing the enemy. Next, the group which was with the Prophet went to face the enemy while the other group came and prayed one rak'ah and the Prophet kept standing [in prayer] as he was. Then, he performed the ruku' and the new group performed the ruku' with him and he performed the sajdah and they performed the sajdah with him. After this, the group which had gone to face the enemy came and prayed one rak'ah while the Prophet and those with him were sitting [in prayer]. Finally, the Prophet made taslim and both groups made the taslim with him. The Prophet prayed two rak'at and both groups prayed two rak'at." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa' i .
-6- Each group prays only one rak'ah with the imam and the imam prays a total of two rak'at whereas each group prays one. Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet prayed at Zhi-qard, and he arranged the people into two rows, one row behind him and one row guarding against the enemy. The group behind him prayed one rak'ah (with him) and then left the place to the other group. The other group then came and prayed one rak'ah (with the Prophet), and [neither group] made up a rak'ah. This is related by anNasa'i and Ibn Hibban. Ibn 'Abbas also says: "Allah made the prayer obligatory on your Prophet [in the following manner]: four rak'at while resident, two while traveling, and only one during times of fear." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa'i.
Fiqh 2.108: How to pray maghrib during times of fear
The sunset prayer is not to be shortened and there is no hadith which states how it is to be prayed during times of fear. Therefore, the scholars differ over how it is to be performed. The Hanafi and Maliki schools say that the imam is to pray two rak'at with the first group and then one rak'ah with the second group. Ash-Shaf'i and Ahmad say it is permissible for the imam to pray one rak'ah with the first group and then two rak'at with the second group as it has been related that 'Ali performed it in that manner.
If the fear [of the enemy] is great or fighting is taking place, each person is to pray individually to the best of his ability - that is, standing or riding, facing the qiblah or not facing the qiblah, making gestures for the ruku' and sajjud- whatever he can do. He should make the gesture for his sajjud lower than that for his ruku'. He is excused from any of the acts of salah which he is unable to perform.
Ibn 'Umar relates: "The Prophet described salatul khauf and said: 'If the danger is greater than that, then [pray] standing or riding."'
In Sahih al-Bukhari, the wording is: "If the danger is greater than that, then pray while standing on your feet or riding, facing the qiblah or not facing the qiblah." In Muslim's version, Ibn 'Umar is reported to have said: "If the danger is greater than that, then pray standing or riding and by making gestures."
If one is attacking the enemy and fears that he will miss the time of salah, he may pray by making gestures even if he is moving in a direction other than that of the qiblah. The case of the one who is being attacked is the same as the one who is attacking. The same is the case for anyone whose enemy prevents him from making the ruku' or the sajdah or a person who fears for himself or his family or his wealth from an enemy or a thief or a wild animal; in all such cases, the person may [if necessary] pray by making gestures and facing any direction. Al-'Iraqi writes: "The same applies to anyone who is fleeing from a flood or fire and has no other option open to him. The same is true for one who is in straitened conditions and is in debt and cannot pay it and he fears that his debtor might catch him and imprison him while not believing his claim. This applies also to one who fears a punishment of qisas and hopes that by his absence the prosecuting party's anger will abate and they will forgive him."
'Abdullah ibn Unais reports: "The Messenger of Allah sent me to Khalid ibn Sufyan al-Hazhili, who was close to 'Arafat, and said: 'Go and kill him.' I saw him and the time of the afternoon prayer came and I said [to myself]: 'I fear that something between him and me will cause me to delay the salah, so I left walking and offered the salah by making gestures. When I came close to him, he said to me: 'Who are you?' I said: 'A man from among the Arabs. It has reached me that you are gathering the people against this man [i.e, the Prophet] so I came to you for that reason.' He said: 'I am doing that.' I walked with him for a while until I could strike him dead with my sword." This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. AlHafiz says its chain is hasan.
Fiqh 2.109: The prayer of a traveler, shortening the prayers that consist of four rak'at
Allah says in the Qur'an: "And when you go forth in the land there is no sin upon you, if you shorten your prayer when you fear the disbelievers may attack you." This concession is not limited to situations of danger.
Ya'la ibn Umaiyyah said: "I said to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab: 'Explain to me why the people shorten the salah when Allah says, 'And when you go forth...[the preceding verse] and those days are gone now!' 'Umar said: 'I wondered about that too and I mentioned that to the Prophet and he said: "This is a charity that Allah, the Exalted, has bestowed upon you, so accept His charity.'" This is related by the group.
At-Tabari records that Abu Munib al-Jarshi mentioned this verse to Ibn 'Umar and said: "We are safe now and are not in fear, should we, then, shorten the salah'?" He answered him: "You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)."
The issue was also referred to 'Aishah and she said: "The salah was made fard in Makkah in sets of two rak'at. When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam came to Medinah, two rak'at were added to each salah except the maghrib salah because it is the witr of the daytime, and the dawn prayer due to its lengthy Qur'anic recital. But if one travels, he performs the original prayer [i.e., only two rak'at]." This is related by Ahmad, alBaihaqi, Ibn Hibban, and Ibn Khuzaimah. Its narrators are trustworthy.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The Prophet would pray only two rak'at for those prayers which consisted of four, whenever he traveled until he returned to Medinah. And it is not confirmed that he ever prayed four rak'at [while traveling], and none of the imams differ on this point, although they do differ about the ruling of shortening the salah."
'Umar, 'Ali, Ibn Mas'ud, ibn 'Abbas, ibn 'Umar, Jabir and the Hanafi scholars say that it is fard. The Maliki school holds that it is sunnah mu'akadah (the stressed one); it is even more emphasized than the congregational salah. If the traveler cannot find another traveler to lead him in the salah, he may pray by himself as it is disliked that he should follow one who is a resident [i.e., and pray four rak'at] according to the Maliki school. The Hanbali school holds that it is preferred for the person to shorten the prayer rather than to pray the complete salah. The Shaf'i school has a similar opinion, if the person has traveled a sufficient distance.
Fiqh 2.110: The distance one must travel before shortening one's prayer
The conclusion from the Qur'anic verse is that any traveling, be it long or short, which falls within the linguistic definition of the word "travel" would suffice to shorten one's salah, to combine them and to break the fast. There is nothing in the sunnah which confines this general term to any particular meaning. Ibn al-Munzhir and others have mentioned more than twenty reports on this point. Here we shall mention some of the more important reports.
Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and al-Baihaqi record that Yahya ibn Yazid said: "I asked Anas ibn Malik about shortening the prayer, and he said: 'The Messenger of Allah would pray two rak'at if he had traveled a distance of three miles or farsakh."' Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "This is the most authentic hadith which states and clarifies [that question]." The conflict between mile and farsakh is made clear in Abu Sa'id al-Khudri's statement: "If the Prophet traveled a distance of one farsakh, he would shorten his prayer." This was related by Sa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan and by al-Hafiz ibn Hajar in at-Talkhis, and he implicitly accepted it by not making any further comments about it. It is well-known that a farsakh equals three miles and, therefore, Abu Sa'id's hadith removes the confusion which arises from Anas' hadith when he says that the shortest distance, due to which the Prophet shortened his prayer, was three miles. One farsakh is equivalent to 5,541 meters while one mile equals 1,748 meters. The shortest distance which has been mentioned with respect to the shortening of salah is one mile. This was recorded by Ibn abi Shaibah, with a sahih chain, on the authority of Ibn 'Umar. Ibn Hazm follows this report, and argues that if the distance is less than one mile, one is not to shorten the salah, the Messenger of Allah went to the graveyard of al-Baqi' to bury the dead and (similarly) he went off to answer the call of nature and did not shorten his salah.
Concerning what some jurists say, namely, that the journey must be at least two days long or as some say three days, Imam Abu al-Qasim alKharqi's refutation of their opinion is sufficient for us. In al-Mughni he says: 'I do not find any proof for what those scholars say. The statements of the (sahabah) companions are contradictory, and they are not a (conclusive) proof if they differ. Something has been related from Ibn 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbas which differs from what these scholars use as proof. Even if that were not the case, their statements do not constitute a proof when a statement or action of the Prophet himself exists. Even if their statements were accepted, we would not be able to follow the distance they mentioned due to the following two reasons. One, they differ from the sunnah that has been related from the Prophet and from the clear meaning of the Qur'an, as the clear meaning of the verse allows one to shorten one's salah if one makes any journey upon the earth. Allah says: "If you journey on the earth, there is no blame upon you if you shorten your prayer." The condition of there being fear has been deleted as can be seen in the hadith we recorded from Ya'la ibn Umayyah, and what remains is the clear meaning of the verse which covers every type of journey. The Prophet said: "The traveler may wipe over his socks for a period of three days." This shows the length of time that one may wipe over the socks and it cannot be used as a proof for the question we are discussing here. One could argue that traveling is less than a three-day journey on the basis of the hadith: "It is not allowed for any woman who believes in Allah and the last day to travel a journey of one day, save in the presence of a male relative." Two, the question of the distance to be traveled is one that may only be answered by some sort of revelation from Allah, the Exalted [the Qur' an or Sunnah]; it is not the type of issue which one may address on the basis of personal reasoning, nor is there any way to derive an analogy. The proofs which exist support the opinion that shortening the salah is permissible for every traveler, unless there is some consensus to the contrary."
Similar to that is the traveling by planes, trains, and so forth, or a trip that is in obedience to Allah, the Exalted, or otherwise. If there is someone whose occupation requires him to always be traveling, for instance, a pilot, a ship captain, truck driver, and so on, then he is permitted to shorten his salah or break his fast as he is truly traveling.
Fiqh 2.111: Whence one may shorten one's salah
The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is permissible to shorten one's salah when one leaves one's residence and is outside of one's city, and that is a condition, and he is not to resume his regular salah until he reaches the first houses of his city.
Ibn al-Munzhir says: "I do not know of the Prophet shortening his salah during any of his travels until after he had left Medinah."
Anas relates: "I prayed four rak'at at Zhul-Halifah." This is related by the group. Some of the early scholars say that if one makes the intention to travel, he may shorten his salah even if he is in his house.
Fiqh 2.112: When the traveler is to pray the complete salah
A traveler may shorten his salah as long as he is on a journey. Likewise if he stays in some place for business or some other affair, then he may shorten his salah as long as he is there, even for years. If the person intends to stay in a place for a certain amount of time then, according to Ibn al-Qayyim, he remains a traveler, regardless of whether he plans to stay there for a long or short time, as long as he does not plan to stay [i.e., reside and not return] in the place that he has traveled to. The scholars differ on this point. Summing up and giving his own opinion, Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Tabuk for twenty days and during that time he shortened his salah and he did not say that one may not shorten his salah if he stays longer than that, although there is agreement that he did stay there for that period of time."
In Sahih al-Bukhari, it is recorded that Ibn 'Abbas said: "The Prophet stayed, during some of his journeys, for nineteen day and he prayed only two rak'at. If we stayed in a place for nineteen days, we would not pray the complete salah. However, if we stayed longer than that, we would perform the whole salah." Ahmad states that ibn 'Abbas was referring to the Prophet's stay in Makkah at the time of its conquest when he said: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Makkah for eighteen days during the time of the conquest as he had to go to Hunain and was not planning to stay there." This is his interpretation of Ibn 'Abbas' statement. Others say that Ibn 'Abbas was referring to the Prophet's stay in Tabuk as Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Tabuk for twenty days and performed qasr salah." Imam Ahmad related this in his Musnad. Al-Miswar ibn Makhramah reports: "We stayed with Sa'd in some of the cities of ash-Sham [Syria] for forty days, and Sa'd would perform qasr while we would offer the whole salah." Naf'i relates: "Ibn 'Umar was in Azerbaijan for six months, as there was snow blocking the pass, and he would pray two rak'at." Hafs ibn 'Ubaidullah says: "Anas ibn Malik stayed in ash-Sham for two years and he prayed the salah of a traveler." Anas relates: "The companions of the Prophet stayed in Ram Hurmuz for seven months and they shortened their salah." Al-Hassan reports: "I stayed with 'Abdurrahman ibn Samurah for two years in Kabul, and he shortened his salah but he did not combine the salah." Ibrahim says: "We resided in Rai for a year or more and in Sijistan for two years . . . [and we prayed qasr]. This is the guidance of the Prophet and his companions, and this is the correct position.
Concerning other opinions which people follow Imam Ahmad say: "If a person intends to stay for four days, he has to offer the whole salah and he may offer qasr if his intention is for less than that. This is based on an interpretation of the reports from the Prophet and his companions [i.e., they never intended to stay for longer than that and would always say: 'We will leave tomorrow,' and so on]. This interpretation is obviously suspect. The Prophet conquered Makkah and stayed there to establish Islam, eradicate polytheism, and to guide the Arabs. It definitely goes, without saying, that such an objective does take more than a day or two to complete. Similarly, his stay in Tabuk was in preparation for the impending war and he knew that this might take longer than just four days. In the same way, Ibn 'Umar's stay in Azerbaijan for six months, and his praying qasr during the entire time was with the knowledge that it takes more than two or three days for such snow to melt and the pass to become traversable. The same is the case with Anas' stay of two years in ash-Sham and his praying qasr and the companions' stay in Ram Hurmuz for seven months while shortening their prayers. It is well known that activities like theirs, such as jihad and guarding, took more than four days." The followers of Ahmad maintain: "If one is staying in a place for the purpose of jihad or due to imprisonment or sickness, then one may shorten one's salah regardless of whether the person thinks that such a situation may last for a short time or a long time." This is correct but there is no proof that such conditions have been stipulated in the Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma' (consensus), or practice of the Prophet's companions. They argued that such conditions are based on what is needed for the person to fulfill his need while remaining a traveler, and that is what is less than four days. His response to them was: 'From where do you derive those conditions, while the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam stayed for more than four days, shortening his salah, in Makkah and Tabuk, and he did not mention to anyone anything about it and he never told them that he never intended to stay for more than four days, even though he knew that the people would [strictly] follow his actions concerning the salah. They surely followed him in his shortening of the salah, and he did not object to their praying qasr if they were to stay for more than four nights. This should be made clear as it is very important. Similarly, the companions (as-sahabah) followed him in that and he did not say anything [in objection] to those who prayed with him."
Malik and ash-Shaf'i say: "If one intends to stay for more than four days, he should perform the whole salah, and if he intends to stay for less than that, he is to offer qasr."
Abu Hanifah holds: "If one intends to stay for fifteen days, he should do the qasr. If he intends to stay for less than that, he should not shorten the salah." This is also the opinion of al-Laith ibn Sa'd, and it has also been related from three companions: 'Umar, ibn 'Umar, and Ibn 'Abbas.
Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab is of the opinion that: "If you stay for four days, you pray four rak'at." A statement similar to that of Abu Hanifah's has also been related from him. 'Ali ibn Abi Talib says that if one stays for ten days, he is to perform the whole salah, and the same has been related from Ibn ' Abbas .
Al-Hassan says: "One who does not get to his destination or (city of residence) may shorten salah."
'Aishah says: "One who does not put down his provision is to shorten the salah."
The four imams agree that if one has some need to take care of and always has the intention of leaving the next day, then he may shorten his salah for as long as he is in that state. However, according to one statement of ash-Shaf'i, he may do so only for seventeen or eighteen days and he is not to shorten his salah after that time. Ibn al-Munzhir states in his Ishraf: "The people of knowledge are in agreement that a traveler may perform qasr as long as he does not intend to stay in a place, even though he stays there for years."
Fiqh 2.114: Nawafil during travel
The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is not disliked to perform nawafil during the state in which one is shortening his salah. On this point, there is no difference between regular sunnah prayers and other nawafl.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim record that the Prophet made the ghusl in the house of Umm Hani on the day of the conquest of Makkah and then he prayed eight rak'at.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet prayed while riding in whatever direction he was facing and nodding his head [i.e., for the movements of the salah].
Al-Hassan relates: "The companions of the Prophet while on a journey performed supererogatory prayers before and after the fard salah."
Ibn 'Umar and others are of the opinion that there are no nawafl, before or after the fard salah, except for during the middle of the night. He saw some people praying after the salah and said: "If I were to pray, I would have performed the whole salah [as obviously that would have taken preference]. O nephew, I accompanied the Messenger of Allah [on joumeys] and he never prayed more than two rak'at until Allah took his soul. And I accompanied Abu Bakr and he did not pray more than two rak'at." He also mentioned the name of 'Umar and 'Uthman, then he recited the verse: "Ye have indeed in the messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Ibn Qudamah combines what al-Hassan and what Ibn 'Umar say by concluding that al-Hassan's report points to the fact that there is no harm in praying nawafil while traveling, whereas Ibn 'Umar's report points to the fact that there is no harm in not praying such nawafil.
Fiqh 2.115: Traveling on a Friday
There is no harm in traveling on a Friday if it is not during the time of the salah.
'Umar heard a man say: "If today was not Friday, I would have left." 'Umar said: "Leave. Friday does not keep one from traveling."
Abu 'Ubaidah traveled on Friday and he did not wait for the salah.
Az-Zuhri wanted to travel before noon on Friday and the people mentioned something to him, and he said: "The Prophet traveled on Friday."
It is allowed for a person to combine the zuhr and 'asr salah, either during the time of the earlier or the later salah, or the maghrib and 'isha prayers if he is in one of the following circumstances:
The scholars are in agreement that one is to combine the zuhr and 'asr prayer during the time of the zuhr prayer, at 'Arafa [during the performance of the pilgrimage], and the maghrib and 'isha prayers during the time of the 'isha at muzdalifah, following the example of the Prophet.
Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is permissible to combine two prayers during the time of either one of them while traveling, regardless of whether the person is actually on the road or has stopped at a place for some time.
Mu'azh reports that while the Prophet was at Tabuk and the sun had passed the meridian, the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam combined the zuhr and 'asr prayers before he started his journey. If he started his journey before the sun passed its meridian, he would delay the zuhr prayer until the time when he stoppped for the 'asr prayer. He would do likewise for the maghrib prayer. If the sun set before he began his journey, he would combine the maghrib and 'isha prayers [at that time]. If he began a journey before the sun had set, he would then combine them at the time of 'isha. This is related by Abu Dawud and at-Tirmizhi who call it hasan.
Kuraib reported that Ibn 'Abbas said: "Shall I not inform you of the salah of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam during a journey?" We said: "Certainly." He said: "If the sun passed its meridian while he stopped, he would combine the zuhr and 'asr prayers before remounting [i.e., moving on]. If the sun had not passed its meridian while he had stopped [i.e., before breaking camp], he would travel until the time of the 'asr prayer and then he would combine the zuhr and 'asr prayers. If the sun set while he had stopped, he would combine the magrib and 'isha prayers. If that did not occur while he had stopped, he would ride until the 'isha time and then combine them." This is related by Ahmad.
Ash-Shaf'i has something similar in his Musnad, namely that when he [the Prophet] set out to travel before the sun passed its meridian, he delayed the zuhr prayer and combine it with the 'asr during the time of the 'asr salah. Al-Baihaqi recorded it with a good chain and he says: "To combine the two prayers due to traveling is something that is well-known and was practiced by the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and those who followed them."
Imam Malik records in al-Muwatta' from Mu'azh that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam delayed his salah one day during the battle of Tabuk and then went and prayed the zuhr and 'asr prayers together. Then he returned and went back again and said the maghrib and 'isha prayers together.
Commenting on this report, ash-Shaf'i says: "His statement, 'then he returned and left again,' only refers to a situation where the Prophet was staying in a certain place [i.e., he was not traveling from one site to another] . "
Ibn Qudamah mentions the preceding hadith and writes in al-Mughni: "Ibn 'Abdul-Barr said: 'That hadith is sahih and its chain is confirmed. The people who are familiar with the life history of the Prophet say that the battle of Tabuk took place in the ninth year of the hijrah. This hadith is a clear proof and the strongest evidence against those who claim that one can only combine the prayers while one is actually moving from one site to another as the Prophet was settled and was not traveling since the Prophet was staying in his tent and would come out and combine two prayers and then return to his tent. Muslim recorded this hadith in his Sahih and stated: 'He would pray the zuhr and 'asr together and the maghrib and 'isha together. One must follow this hadith as it is confirmed [to be authentic] and it is a clear statement on this rule and there is nothing which contradicts it. The permission to combine the salah is a concession for anyone who is traveling but it is by no means confined to just those times when the person is actually on the road [i.e., traveling from one place to another]. The same is the case for shortening the salah and for wiping over the socks, but it is best to delay it.'": Having the intention to combine is not a condition for combining or shortening the salah. Ibn Taimiyyah holds: "That is the position of the majority of the scholars. When the Prophet combined the salah with his companions or shortened the salah with them, he never ordered any of them to make the intention for combining or shortening the salah. In fact, when he left Medinah for Makkah, he prayed two rak'at without combining the salah, and then he prayed the zuhr prayer at 'Arafa without telling the people that he intended to pray the 'asr right afterward, next he prayed the 'asr with them and they did not have the intention to combine their prayers, and in that combination he prayed the latter salah early. When he went from Medinah, he led the people in the 'asr salah at Zhul-Halifah and he did not order them to make the intention to shorten the salah.": Concerning offering the two combined prayers right after each other, Ibn Taimiyyah writes: "The correct opinion is that it is not a necessary condition to do so under any circumstances, neither during the time of the first salah nor during the time of the latter salah. There is no such limit in the shari'ah and doing so would defeat the purpose of the concession [i.e., permission to combine the two salah]." Ash-Shaf'i says: "It is quite permissible for a person to pray the maghrib in his house with the intention of combining the prayers and then go to the mosque to pray the 'isha." A similar statement has been related from Ahmad.
Fiqh 2.117: Combining two prayers during rain
Al-Athram records in his Sunnan that Abu Salamah ibn 'Abdurrahman said: "It is a sunnah to combine the maghrib and 'isha prayers when it is raining." Al-Bukhari records that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam combined the maghrib and 'isha prayers on a rainy night.
A summary of the opinions of the different schools of fiqh on this point follows:
The Shaf'i school says that it is allowed for the resident to combine the zuhr and 'asr or the maghrib and 'isha, praying each pair in the time of the earlier salah only, given that it is raining when one begins the earlier prayer and it is still raining by the time one begins the second prayer.
According to the Maliki school, it is allowed to combine the maghrib and 'isha in the mosque at the time of the maghrib due to rain or expected rain, if there is mud and darkness along the way, or if there is a lot of mud and it prevents the people from wearing their shoes. Nevertheless, he dislikes that the zuhr and 'asr should be combined due to rain.
According to the Hanbali school, it is only allowed to combine the maghrib and 'isha in the time of the former or the latter due to snow, ice, mud, severe cold, or rain which soaks the clothes. This concession is allowed only for one who prays with a congregation in the mosque and who comes from a distance over which he could be harmed by the rain. However, for one who prays in a congregation in his house or whose path to the mosque is covered or protected, or for one whose house is right next to the mosque, it is not allowed to combine the salah.
Fiqh 2.118: Combining the two prayers due to some illness or other excuse
Ahmad, Qadi Hussain, al-Khattabi, and al-Mutawali of the Shaf'i school are of the opinion that it is allowed to combine two prayers, either during the time of the earlier or later salah, due to illness as it is a greater hardship than rain. An-Nawawi says: "This is a strong opinion based on [sound] evidence." In al-Mughni it is stated: "The illness which permits one to combine the prayers is the one which would otherwise cause hardship and more weakness [if he prayed each salah separately]."
The Hanbali school is the most accommodating as it allows one to combine the prayers, at the time of the early or later salah, for one who is ill as well as for the woman who is breast-feeding and will face hardship in cleaning her dress for every salah, for the woman who is plagued by a prolonged flow of blood, for the person who cannot control his urine, and for one who cannot purify himself or herself, and for the one who fears for his life, property, or family.
Ibn Taimiyyah says: "Among the opinions the most accommodating on this question is that of the Hanbali school which allows one to combine the prayers if he is busy (since an-Nasa'i has related something to that effect from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam) and they also say that the cook and baker, and so forth., may also combine their prayers if they fear their wealth (i.e., their investment or what they are working on) will otherwise be ruined."
Imam an-Nawawi writes in his commentary on Sahih Muslim: "The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is allowed for the resident to combine the prayers due to some pressing need. This is the statement of Ibn Sireen and Ashhab from the companions of Malik, and al-Khattabi records it from al-Qifal and ash-Shaf'i and from Abu Ishaq al-Maruzi, and from a number of as-hab al-ahadith, and it is the conclusion of Ibn al-Munzhir. This is supported by the statement of ibn 'Abbas: 'The Prophet combined his salah because he did not want to put his ummah to hardship, and not because of illness or any other reason."' The hadith from Ibn 'Abbas, mentioned previously, has been recorded by Imam Muslim who states: "The Messenger of Allah combined the zuhr and 'asr and then the maghrib and 'isha in Medinah without there being any danger or rain." Ibn 'Abbas was asked: "What did he desire by that action?" He replied: "He did not want any hardship for his ummah." Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from him that the Prophet prayed seven rak'at and eight rak'at, i.e., the zuhr and 'asr together and the maghrib and 'isha together, in Medinah. Muslim also records from 'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas addressed the people one day after the 'asr salah until well after the sun had set and the stars began to appear. The people said to him: "The prayer, the prayer." A man from the tribe of Taim continuously repeated: "The prayer, the prayer." Ibn 'Abbas said: "Are you teaching me the sunnah? May you have no mother." Then he said: "I saw the Messenger of Allah combine the zuhr and 'asr and the maghrib and 'isha." 'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq commented: "I felt some uneasiness in my heart about what he had said, so I went to Abu Hurairah to ask him about that, and he confirmed what Ibn 'Abbas had said."
Fiqh 2.119: Validity of combined prayers after their legal excuse ceases to exist
In al-Mughni it is stated: "If someone performs both prayers at the time of the earlier salah and then his reason for doing so ceases to exist after he has completed the salah and before the time of the next salah begins [i.e., the next salah being the one which he had just prayed during the earlier time], then what he has done is sufficient for him and he need not repeat the second salah at its proper time. Since he performed the salah in a proper manner, he is free from any extra obligation due to that action. He fulfilled his obligation during a circumstance in which he had some legal excuse, and his action is not invalidated by the fact that this excuse no longer exists. This is similar to the case of a person who performe tayammum, and after he finishes his salah, he finds water."
A salah on a ship, train, plane, and so on, is valid and there is no dislike for such an act as it makes life easier for the one performing it. Ibn 'Umar says: "I asked the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam about salah on a ship and he said: 'Pray standing upon them unless you fear that you will be drowned [i.e., the boat might capsize]."' This is related by ad-Daraqutni and by al-Hakim. The later grades it sahih according to the criteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Abdullah ibn Abi 'Utbah reports: "I accompanied Jabir ibn 'Abdullah and Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and Abu Hurairah on a boat, and they prayed standing in a congregation, with one of them as their imam, although they could have gone ashore [if they had so desired]." This is related by Sa'id ibn Mansur.
It is preferred for the traveler to say, upon leaving his house: "In the name of Allah, the Exalted! We have trusted in Allah. There is no power or might, save with Allah. O Allah, I seek refuge in Thee from being misguided and from misguiding others, or that I stray from Your path or cause others to stray from Your path, or that I am wronged or that I do wrong to others, or that I act foolishly or have someone act foolishly with me."
Then, the person may say whatever he wishes of the supplications which have been recorded from the Prophet, sallallahu alehi wasallam. Here are some of them:
'Ali ibn Rabi'ah narrates: "'Ali was brought a riding animal. When he put his foot in the stirrup, he said: 'In the name of Allah.' Then, when he sat on it, he said: 'Praise be to Allah. Glory be to the One Who made this subservient to us for we were not able to make [it subservient] and it is to our Lord that we will return.' He then praised Allah three times and extolled His greatness three times and then said: 'Glory be to You; there is no God but Thee. I have wronged my soul, so forgive me. No one forgives sins, except You.' Then, he laughed. I said to him: 'Why do you laugh, commander of the faithful?' He replied: 'I saw the Messenger of Allah doing the same and then laughing. I asked him: "What makes you laugh, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "The Lord is pleased with His slave who says: 'O Lord, forgive me,' and He says: 'My slave knows that no one forgives sins, save I.'" This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Hibban, and by al-Hakim who says it is sahih according to the criteria of Imam Muslim.
Al-'Azdi reports that Ibn 'Umar taught him that the Messenger of Allah would extol Allah's greatness three times while seating himself on his camel for a journey. Then he would say: "Glory be to the One who made this subservient to us for we were not able [to make it subservient]. It is to our Lord that we shall return. O Allah, we ask of Thee, in this journey of ours, righteousness and piety and to (be able to) perform such deeds that are pleasing to You. O Allah, make this journey of ours easy for us and make its length short for us. O Allah, companion on this journey and the One who looks after our family and property in our absence. O Allah, I seek refuge in Thee from the difficulty of traveling and the unhappiness in what I see and in finding that something harmful has happened when I return to my property and family."
When he would return from his journey he would add: "Returning [are we] repentant, serving and praising our Lord." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas reports that when the Prophet desired to travel, he would say: "O Allah, You are my companion in my travels and the One Who looks after my family [while I am gone]. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from unworthy travel companions and an unpleasant situation upon my return. O Allah, make the distance short for us and the travel easy for us." When he desired to return, he would say: "We are returning, [while] repenting to Allah, worshipping our Lord and praising Him." When he would enter upon his family, he would say: "We are repenting to our Lord. We hope that none of our sins would remain." This is related by Ahmad, at-Tabarani, and al-Bazzar with a sahih chain.
'Abdullah ibn Sarjas reports that, when the Prophet had to travel, he would say: "O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the difficulty of the journey, and sorrow on return, and disorder after things are set right, from the cry of the oppressed, and from seeing harm having come to our property and family."
And when he returned he would make a similar supplication, but instead of saying: "from seeing harm having come to our property and family," he would mention family first and then property. This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Ibn 'Umar reports that when the Prophet went out for a battle or a journey, and night came upon him, he would say: "O Earth, my Lord and your Lord is Allah. I seek refuge in Allah from your evil and the evil of what is on you and the evil of what has been created upon you and the evil of what walks upon you. I seek refuge in Allah from lions and large black snakes, and from snakes and scorpions, and from the evil or all that inhabit the land, and the evil of a father and what he has fathered." This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.
Khaulah bint Hakim as-Sulimiyah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever stops at a stopping place should say: 'I seek refuge by the perfected word of Allah. the Exalted, from the evil of what has been created,' then nothing will harm him until he leaves that stopping place." This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.
'Ata ibn abi Marwan states from his father that Ka'b took an oath by the One who opened up the sea for Moses that Suhaib related to him that whenever the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam saw a city which he wished to enter, he would say: "O Allah, Lord of the seven heavens and what they shade, Lord of the seven earths and what they carry, Lord of the satans and those that they misguide, Lord of the winds and what they blow away, I ask of You for the good of this city and the good of its inhabitants and the good of what is in it. I seek refuge in You from its evil and the evil of its inhabitants and the evil of what is in it." This is related by an-Nasa'i, ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim who calls it sahih.
Ibn 'Umar says: "We would travel with the Messenger of Allah, and when he would see the city that he wished to enter, he would say: 'O Allah, give us blessings from what is in it,' three times. And, 'Allah, give us provisions from its harvest and make us beloved to its inhabitants and make the pious people of its inhabitants beloved to us." This is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat with a good chain.
'Aishah says: "Whenever the Messenger of Allah came to a place that he wished to enter he would say: 'O Allah, I ask of you of the good of this place and the good of what you have collected therein. O Allah, grant us provisions from its harvest and protect us from its diseases. Make us beloved to its inhabitants and make the pious people of its inhabitants beloved to us.' This is related by ibn as-Sani.
Abu Hurairah reports that when the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was on a journey and daybreak approached he would say: "Let one listen and witness the praise of Allah and His good favor toward us. Our Lord, accompany us and show us favour [as we] seek refuge in Allah from the hell-fire." This is related by Muslim.
Fiqh 2.125: The virtues of Jumu'ah, Friday prayer
Friday (Jumu'ah) is the best day of the week.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The best day on which the sun rises is Friday. [On Friday] Adam was created and on that day he entered paradise and on that day he was expelled from paradise. And the Hour will come to pass on Friday." This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it sahih.
Abu Lubanah al-Badri relates that the Prophet said: "The most prominent of the days [lit. the leader of the days] is the day of Jumu'ah and the most honored in Allah's sight, and it is more honored in Allah's sight than the day of breaking the fast or the day of sacrifice. It has five significant merits: Allah created Adam on this day; on this day Allah sent Adam down to the earth; on this day, Allah caused Adam to die; on this day, there is a time during which if anyone asks anything of Allah it will be granted to him unless he asks for something which is forbidden; and on this day, the Hour will be established. There are no angels close to Allah or sky or earth or wind or mountain or sea who are not worried concerning the day of Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Al-Iraqi says its chain is hasan.
One should do one's best to make supplications during the last moments (or hours) of Jumu'ah.
'Abdullah ibn Salam relates: "I said, and the Messenger of Allah was sitting: 'We find in the Book of Allah that on Friday there is an 'hour' in which, if a believing slave prays to Allah for something, his prayer is (indeed) accepted and he is granted what ever he prays for.' The Messenger of Allah pointed toward me and said: 'Or part of an hour.' I said: 'You have spoken the truth: or part of an hour.' I asked: 'What hour is it?' He replied: 'The last hour of the day.' I remarked: 'That is not a time of salah?' He responded: 'Certainly [it is]; if a believing slave offers salah and then sits, he will not be sitting, save due to the salah, and he will be in salah."' This is related by Ibn Majah.
Abu Sa'id and Abu Hurairah report that the Messenger of Allah said: "On Jumu'ah there is a time that if a believing slave asks Allah during it for some good, [Allah will definitely] give it to him, and that time is after the 'asr salah." This is related by Ahmad. Al-'Iraqi calls it sahih.
Jabir reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "The day of Jumu'ah has twelve hours, and during one of the hours, you will not find a Muslim slave [of Allah] asking Allah for something, but that He will give it to him. Seek it in the last hour after the 'Asr salah." This is related by anNasa'i, Abu Dawud, and by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, and he calls it sahih according to Muslim's criteria. Ibn Hajar says that its chain is hasan.
Abu Salamah ibn 'Abdurrahman reports that some companions of the Prophet gathered and mentioned the "hour on Jumu'ah." They left and did not differ on the fact that it is the last hour of Jumu'ah. This is related by Sa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan and al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar calls it sahih.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: "Most of the hadith concerning the hour in which the supplication is always responded to state the hour to be after the 'asr prayer, and some state it to be after the sun passes the meridian."
There is a hadith recorded by Muslim and Abu Dawud which states that Abu Musa heard the Messenger of Allah say concerning the special hour on Jumu'ah: "It is between the time that the imam sits [i.e., upon the pulpit] and the time that the salah is completed." All the same, this particular hadith is defective because its chain is broken and it is mudtarib.
Fiqh 2.126: Making many prayers and salutations upon the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam during the night and the day of Jumu'ah
Aus ibn Aus reports that the Prophet said: "The most virtuous of your days is Jumu'ah. On that day, Adam was created and on that day he died, (on that day) the horn will be blown and the people will be dumbfounded! Increase your prayers upon me as your prayers upon me will be presented to me." The people said: "O Messenger of Allah, how will our prayers be presented to you when you have passed away?" He said: "Allah has prohibited the earth from eating the bodies of the Prophets." This is related by the five, except for at-Tirmizhi.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "It is preferred to pray for (Allah's blessings on the Prophet during the day and night of Jumu'ah as the Prophet said: 'Make many prayers upon me during the day of Friday and the night of Friday.' The Messenger of Allah is the leader of mankind, and Jumu'ah is the best of the days of the week. Prayers upon him during that day are a privilege [he deserves] which belongs to no other. This act also has another wisdom to it and that is that all of the good that has passed onto this [Muslim] ummah, in this life and the hereafter, has passed through him. Allah has gathered the good of this life and the next life for this ummah, and the greatest honor and success will be granted to them on Friday. On that day, they will be granted their houses and palaces in paradise and that is the day they will be given more when they enter paradise. It is a day of celebration for them in this life. It is also a day in which Allah fulfills their needs and answers their prayers and requests in this world. They are aware of all of that and are able to attain it because of the Prophet and it is through him [that they received these teachings]; therefore, in gratitude and appreciation for the great blessings we received through him, we should make many prayers upon him during the day and night of Jumu 'ah."
Fiqh 2.127: Recitation of Surah al-Kahf
It is preferred to recite surah al-Kahf during the day and night of Jumu'ah.
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will have illumination from the light from one Jumu'ah to the next." This is related by an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and alHakim.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will be blessed with a light that will rise from underneath his feet to the peak of the sky. This will be a light for him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be forgiven for what is between the Jumu'ah [and the next] Jumu'ah." This is related by Ibn Mardwwiyah with a faultless chain.
Shaikh Muhammad 'Abdu issued a verdict that mentioned reciting Surah al-Kahf aloud among the many disliked matters on Friday. He also mentioned the following: singling out Friday as a day of fasting, singling out its night as a night to perform salatul tahajjud, reciting Surah al-Kahf during it with a specific manner of melody which disturbs those who are offering salah, while the people in the mosque are not listening because of their being engaged in conversation with others. Therefore, one should be careful about such a recital.
Fiqh 2.128: Performing ghusl, beautifying one's self, using the miswak, and using perfume for any gathering and especially for Salatul Jumu'ah
It is preferred for anyone - man or woman, an elderly or young person, a traveler or a resident - who desires to attend the salatul Jumu'ah or any gathering of the people, to cleanse and to wear best attire. One should perform ghusl, put on one's finest clothing, apply perfume, and to brush one's teeth. The following hadith are recorded on this matter:
Abu Sa'id reports that the Prophet said: "Every Muslim should have a ghusl on Friday and wear his best clothing, and if he has perfume, he should use it." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
Ibn Salam reports that he heard the Prophet say, while he was upon the pulpit on Friday: "It would do no [harm] to anyone if he were to buy two gowns for Friday other than his work clothes." This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.
Salman al-Farsi reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "A man who performs ghusl on Friday, purifies [himself] what he can and uses dye [for his hair] or perfumes himself in his house, goes to the mosque, and does not cause separation between two people [who are already seated], prays what Allah has prescribed for him, and then listens quietly while the imam speaks, all his sins between that Friday and the next Friday will be forgiven." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari, while Abu Hurairah used to say: "And for three more days as for every good deed Allah grants tenfold reward." The sins mentioned in this hadith are the minor sins as Ibn Majah recorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah in the words: "For one who has not committed major sins."
Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that the Prophet said: "It is obligatory upon every Muslim to perform ghusl, apply purfume and use the miswak on Jumu'ah.
Abu Hurairah reports that one Friday the Prophet said: "O gathering of Muslims, Allah has made this day an 'id for you, so make ghusl and use the miswak." This is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat and al-Kabir with a chain whose narrators are trustworthy.
Fiqh 2.129: Going early to Salatul Jumu'ah
It is preferred for one to go early to the salatul Jumu'ah, unless he is the imam. 'Alqamah says: "I went with 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud to the mosque and we found that three people had arrived there before us. [Ibn Mas'ud] said: 'The fourth of four, and the fourth of four is not far from Allah, for I have heard the Messenger of Allah say: "The people will be seated on the day of resurrection according to how they came to the salatul Jumu'ah: the first, then the second, then the third, then the fourth and the fourth of four is not far from Allah."' This is related by Ibn Majah and al-Munzhiri.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever makes ghusl on Jumu'ah like the ghusl one makes due to sexual defilement, and then goes to the mosque, it will be as if he had sacrificed a camel. If he goes during the second hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a cow. If he goes during the third hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a horned lamb. If he goes during the fourth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a hen. And if he goes during the fifth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed (something like) an egg. When the imam comes, the angels will be present to listen to the rememberance." This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.
Ash-Shaf'i and a number of scholars are of the opinion that the "hours" refer to the hours of the day; therefore, it is preferred for the people to start attending the mosque right after dawn. Malik is of the opinion that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes its meridian and afterward. Some hold that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes its meridian. Ibn Rushd says: "That is the most apparent meaning as going [to the mosque] after the sun passes the meridian is obligatory."
At-Tirmizhi reports that the people of knowledge dislike that one should "step over the necks of the people" on Jumu'ah and they were very strict in this regard. 'Abdullah ibn Busr says: "A man came and he was stepping over the necks of the people while the Prophet was delivering khutbah of Jumu'ah. He said to him: 'Sit down. You have harmed the people and have come late."' This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ahmad, and Ibn Khuzaimah, and others call it sahih.
This ruling does not apply to the imam or one who finds an opening and cannot reach it, save by going over the people. If one wants to return to his place after leaving it due to some necessity, he may do so on the condition that he does not harm the people. 'Uqbah ibn al-Harith relates: "I prayed the 'asr in Medinah behind the Prophet and then he stood and hurried off, stepping over the people, to go to some of the apartments of his wives. The people were afraid because of his rushing away in this manner. When he came out and found them amazed at leaving them in such a hurry, he said: 'I remembered some gold that was in my possession and I hated that it should remain with me, so I ordered it to be distributed."' This is related by al-Bukhari and an-Nasa'i.
And when he returned he would make a similar supplication, but instead of saying: "from seeing harm having come to our property and family," he would mention family first and then property. This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Fiqh 2.130: Nawafl before salatul Jumu'ah
It is a sunnah to offer supererogatory prayers before al-Jumu'ah until the imam arrives. After the imam's arrival, one should no longer offer any salah, save for the prayer of greeting the mosque (tahayyatul masjid) which may be performed quickly during the khutbah unless one comes at the end of the khutbah and would not have the time [i.e., before the actual salah begins] to perform tahayyatul masjid.
Ibn 'Umar used to perform a long prayer before al-Jumu'ah and then two rak'at after it, and he said that the Prophet used to do so. This is related by Abu Dawud.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever makes ghusl on the day of Jumu'ah and then goes to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed for him, and remains quiet while the imam delivers the khutbah, and then prays with the imam, he will have forgiven for him what is between that Jumu'ah and the next and an additional three days." This is related by Muslim.
Jabir reports that a man came to the mosque on Jumu'ah while the Prophet was delivering the khutbah. The Prophet inquired of him: "Did you offer the salah?" The man replied: "No!" He told him: "Pray two rak'at." This is related by the group. In one narration it states: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam is delivering the khutbah, he should pray two rak'at and make them quick." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam has already arrived, he should offer two rak'at." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
It is preferred for one who is in the mosque to change place if he feels sleepy. The movement may remove some of his drowsiness and help wake him up. This rule is true for Fridays and any other day.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If one of you becomes sleepy while he is in the mosque, he should move from his place to another place." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan sahih.
Fiqh 2.131: The Friday prayer as an obligation
The scholars are in agreement that salatul Jumu'ah is an individual obligation and it is two rak'at. Allah says in the Qur'an: "O you who believe, when the call for the salah of Jumu'ah is proclaimed, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and trading). That is best for you if you but knew."
The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadith recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: "We are the last [of the people to come] but the first on the day of resurrection. They received their books before us and we got ours after them. This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed concerning it, and Allah guided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow and the Christians the day after tomorrow."
Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet noticed some people staying away from al-Jumu'ah and said: "I had the notion to order someone to lead the people in prayer, and then to go and burn the houses of those who stayed away from al-Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Abu Hurairah and Ibn 'Umar report that they heard the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam say: "Those who are not attending the Friday salah should change their ways; otherwise, Allah, the Exalted, will seal their hearts and they will be reckoned the heedless." This is related by Muslim, and by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i from ibn 'Umar and ibn 'Abbas.
Abu al-Ja'd ad-Damari reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever misses three Friday prayers in a row out of negligence will have a seal put over his heart by Allah." This is related by the five, and Ahmad and Ibn Majah have something similar from Jabir, while Ibn as-Sakin has graded it to be sahih.
Salatul Jumu'ah is an obligation upon every free, adult, sane, resident Muslim who has the ability to attend the salah and does not have a valid excuse to miss it. Salatul Jumu'ah, however, is not obligatory on the following:
-1- Women and children. Concerning this category there is no difference of opinion.
-2- The person who is ill and faces hardship if he goes to the mosque, or who fears that his illness will be increased by going to the mosque, or whose recovery will be delayed. This also includes the person who is nursing a very ill person if, especiallay, the ill person cannot manage in the absence of the nursing person.
Tariq ibn Shihab reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Al-Jumu'ah is a duty upon every Muslim in the community, save four: a slave, or a woman, or a child, or a person who is ill." An-Nawawi says that its chain is sahih according to the conditions set by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Ibn Hajr says that more than one person has graded it sahih.
-3- For the traveler, even if he is staying at a certain place during the time of the beginning of salatul Jumu'ah, it is not obligatory. This is based on the fact that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam traveled and did not perform the salatul Jumu'ah but only prayed the zuhr and 'asr together during the time of the zuhr prayers. The caliphs after him and others also acted in a similar manner.
-4- One who is in debt and cannot repay his debt and therefore fears that he will be imprisoned, and one who fears that he will be harmed by an oppressive ruler: Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever hears the call to the salah and does not respond to it [i.e.,by coming to the salah], there will be no prayer for him unless he has an excuse." The people inquired: "O Messenger of Allah, what is a [valid] excuse?" He answered: "Fear or illness." This is related by Abu Dawud with a sahih chain.
-5- Environmental restraints like rain, mud, extreme cold, and so on. Ibn 'Abbas said to the mu'azhzhin on a rainy day: "When you say 'I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,' do not say 'Come to the prayer,' but say 'Pray in your houses."' The people objected to that and he told them: "One better than me did so [the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam]. Al-Jumu'ah is an obligation but I dislike that you should go out walking in the mud and slush." Abi Malih reports that his father had witnessed the day of Jumu'ah with the Prophet and it was raining and the people were troubled by their shoes so he ordered them to pray in their stopping places. This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.
All of these people are not obliged to pray the Friday salah although they are obliged to pray the zuhr. Should one of them pray salatul Jumu'ah, it will still be valid for him or her and he will no longer be obliged to pray the zuhr. And the women during the time of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, attended the mosque and used to pray al-Jumu'ah with him.
Fiqh 2.132: The Time of the Salatul Jumu'ah
The majority of the companions and successors were of the opinion that the time of al-Jumu'ah is the same as that of the zuhr. Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and alBaihaqi record from Anas that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray al-Jumu'ah when the sun had passed its meridian. Ahmad and Muslim record that Salamah ibn al-Akua' said: "We would pray salatul Jumu'ah with the Prophet when the sun had passed the meridian, and when we returned [from the salah], we would be following our shadow." Al-Bukhari says: "The time of al-Jumu'ah is when the sun passes its meridian." Similar narrations have been recorded from 'Umar, 'Ali, an-Nu'man ibn Bashir, and 'Umar ibn Harith. Ash-Shaf'i says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, and the imams after them all prayed the Jumu'ah when the sun had passed its zenith."
The scholars of the Hanbali school and Ishaq are of the opinion that the time for al-Jumu'ah is from the beginning of the time for salatul 'id to the end of the time for the zuhr. They base their opinion on Ahmad, Muslim, and an-Nasa'i who record from Jabir: "The Prophet would pray alJumu'ah and then we would take our camels to rest until the sun passed its zenith." This hadith clearly states that they prayed al-Jumu'ah before the sun passed the meridian. They also cited as proof the hadith of 'Abdullah ibn Saidan as-Salmi who said: "We prayed al-Jumu'ah with Abu Bakr, and his khutbah and salah were before noon. Then we prayed with 'Uthman and his khutbah and salah lasted until after the sun had passed the meridian, and no one scolded either for it." This is related by Ahmad, who cites it as a proof, and by ad-Daraqutni. Ahmad adds: "And [something] similar to that has been related from ibn Mas'ud, Jabir, Sa'id, and Mu'awiyyah. They all prayed before the sun passed the meridian and no one objected to what they did, and that was the consensus. The majority of the scholars, however, interpret the hadith of Jabir as implying that one should pray the salah early in its time, when the sun has passed the meridian, and not wait until the weather gets cool. The prayer and the resting of the camels was right after the sun passed the meridian. As to the report from 'Abdullah ibn Saidan, these scholars consdier it weak. Ibn Hajar writes about him: 'He is one of the major tabi'in [i.e., of the generation after the companions], and his integrity is not well-established. 'Adi says: "He is somewhat majhul, i.e. unknown as a trustworthy person." Bukhari observes. "His report is not to be trusted, especially when he is contradicted by people who are more credible (qawi) than him as Ibn abi Shaibah relates from Suwaid ibn Ghaflah that the later prayed with Abu Bakr and 'Umar after the sun had passed the meridian and its chain is strong. "'
Fiqh 2.133: The number of people required for al-Jumu'ah
There is no dispute among the scholars that a congregation is a necessary condition for the validity of al-Jumu'ah. This is based on the hadith of Tariq ibn Shihab who reports that the Prophet said: "Al-Jumu 'ah is an obligation ( wajib) upon every Muslim in the community." However, the scholars do differ on how many people are required for al-Jumu'ah. There are fifteen different opinions on this question and they are mentioned by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari. The strongest opinion is that salatul Jumu'ah is valid if there are two or more people present since the Prophet is reported to have said: "Two or more constitute a congregation."
Ash-Shaukani says: 'The other prayers are considered to be made in congregation if there are two people present. The same applies to Jumu'ah salah, unless there is a reason for it to be different. There is no evidence to show that [for the purpose of the congregation] its number should be larger than that for the other prayers. 'Abdul Haqq says: 'There is no confirmed hadith on the number of people needed for al-Jumu'ah.' Similarly, as-Sayuti holds: 'There is no confirmed hadith which states a particular number [for the Jumu'ah salah].'" This is also the opinion of at-Tabari, Dawud, an-Nakha'i, and Ibn Hazm.
Fiqh 2.134: The place for al-Jumu'ah
It is valid to perform the Jumu'ah salah in any country, city, mosque, any building in a city, or in any space in a city as it also is valid to have it performed in more than one place. 'Umar wrote the following to the people of Bahrain: "Offer the Jumu'ah salah wherever you may be." This is related by Ibn abi Shaibah. Ahmad holds its chain to be good. This includes both the cities and countryside.
Ibn 'Abbas says: "The first Friday salah that was performed in Islam, after the Friday salah in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam in Medinah, was in Jawa'i, a village in Bahrain." This is related by al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.
Al-Laith ibn Sa'd reports that the people of Egypt and of the surrounding sea-shore would perform the Jumu'ah salah during the time of 'Umar and 'Uthman according to their orders. Some of the companions of the Prophet attended jumu'ah prayer with them. Ibn 'Umar saw the people in the areas between Makkah and Medinah performing the Jumu'ah prayers, and he did not object to their action. This is related by 'Abdurrazzaq with a sahih chain.
Some of the conditions under which the jumu'ah salah becomes obligatory have already been mentioned (i.e., it is obligatory for a free, sane, adult male resident who does not have a valid excuse which would excuse him from attending the prayer). It was also mentioned that a congregation is a condition for the Friday salah. This is what the sunnah of the Prophet teaches us and what Allah holds us responsible for. Concerning the other stipulations which some of the jurists stipulate for the Jumu'ah salah, none of them has any basis to which we may refer, or any evidence to support it. It will be sufficient here to simply quote the author of ar-Raudah anNadiyah who writes:
[The Friday salah] is like the rest of the prayers and there is nothing in it that differs from them, unless there is some evidence to the contrary. This statement refutes those who stipulate, as a necessary conditions for Friday prayer, the presence of a well-established imam and a congregational mosque in the area as well as a certain number of people attending the congregational prayer. There is no evidence whatever that those conditions are even preferred - not to speak of being obligatory, or for that matter, being a necessary condition for the Friday salah. If two people pray the Jumu'ah in a place where there is no one else but them, they would have performed their prescribed duty. If one of them delivers the khutbah, they would be following what is sunnah; and if they leave the khutbah, then it is only the sunnah which they have neglected, (not something which was obligatory). But for the hadith of Tariq ibn Shihab which clearly requires every Muslim to offer it in congregation and the fact that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always performed it in a congregation, offering it individually, like the rest of the prayers, would have been quite acceptable. Concerning the statement "from four people to the ruler of the area," that is certainly not the Prophet's statement nor of any of his companions... In fact, [this is] a statement of al-Hassan al-Basri. As to various statements and psuedojuristic opinions concerning this noble worship, the Friday prayer, which Allah has prescribed once a week as one of the signs of Islam, a little consideration should suffice to show their superfluity and error. One of these is the amazing statement that khutbah is equivalent to two rak'at of salah, and if one misses it, then his jumu'ah is not valid. They seem to be quite ignorant of what has been related from the Prophet through a number of chains which support each other that "if a person misses one rak'ah, then he is to perform another rak'ah and his salah would be completed." Have not other ahadith reached them that are valid in such matters? Some say that one cannot perform the Jumu'ah unless there are three people with the imam and others hold that four people are needed, while yet others stipulate seven people! Still others say nine, and some think twelve, twenty, thirty, and there are even some who think forty, fifty, seventy, and every number that is between those numbers!
Some hold that many people have to be present without specifying a particular number, while others state that al-Jumu'ah may only be performed in a city in which there is a "congregational mosque." Some are convinced that there have to be so many thousand people living in the area. Some hold that there has to be a congregational mosque and a public restroom. Yet others propose that the prayer is not obligatory unless there is a well-known and established imam; if such an imam cannot be found or if his credibility is doubtful, then the Friday salah is neither obligatory nor legitimate....No such statement can be found [in the book of Allah or in the sunnah] to support what they claim to be the conditions or prerequisites of the Jumu'ah... Whoever comes with such gibberish must be refuted for the only criterion is the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. As Allah says in the Qur'an: "If you dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the Messenger"; "The answer of the believers, when summoned to Allah and His Messenger, in order that he may judge between them is no other than this: they say: "We hear and we obey"; "But no, by thy Lord, they can have no (real) faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction." Those verses and others similar to them are the clearest evidence that one must return to the rule of Allah and His Messenger if there is any dispute. The rule of Allah is the Book of Allah. The rule of the Messenger, after his passing away, is his sunnah and nothing other than that. Also, Allah did not endow any of his slaves - even if he reaches the highest degree of knowledge and has accumulated what no one else has - with the right to make any statement concerning this religion without any authority from the Book or the Sunnah. Likewise, if a mujtahid (jurisconsult) should take liberty of proposing an opinion without substantiating it, then it is not permissible for anyone to follow him in that, regardless of who he may be. I, as Allah knows, am always greatly astonished by this type of writers and their writings which supposedly provide guidance in one's creed and practice but which are filled with gibberish. This is not limited to only some of the schools among the different schools of law, or only certain areas from among the different areas, or only certain eras from among all of the eras [it is found in all of these schools of law, areas, and eras]! In fact, the later people follow the earlier people [in such things] as if they were following the umm al-kitab [mother of the Book], although, [they follow] distorted teachings.
Fiqh 2.137: Ruling concerning khutbah
The majority of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that khutbahtul Jumu'ah is obligatory and they support this by the confirmed hadith which state that the Prophet always made the khutbah with the Jumu'ah. In their support they also quote the saying of the Prophet: "Pray as you see me pray," and the Qur'anic verse: "O you who believe, when the call is proclaimed for salatul jumu'ah, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah." This verse contains an order to hasten unto the remembrance, which implies it is obligatory, and (the scholars) interpret the remembrance of Allah to include the khutbatul Jumu'ah. AshShaukani refutes the first argument by saying that hadith simply states the action of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and does not necessarily prove that such an action is obligatory. As to the verse, he regards it as simply a command to be present at the salah which is obligatory and excludes khutbah... Regarding their argument relating to the commandment to "hasten unto the rememberance of Allah," he says it refers to salah only, which is the real cause for making haste. There is, however, an agreement that the Friday salah is obligatory while there is a dispute over whether or not the khutbah is obligatory. Ash-Shaukani concludes by saying that apparently the correct view is the one held by al-Hassan al-Basri, Dawud az-Zahiri and al-Juwaini, that the khutbah is only a highly recommended act.
The imam should greet the people when he comes upon the pulpit, followed by the azhan which is to be made when he sits. The imam should face the people during the azhan.
Jabir reports that when the Prophet mounted the pulpit, he would greet the people. This is related by Ibn Majah and in its chain is Ibn Lahiya, and al-Athram has recorded it in his Sunnan from ash-Sha'biy, on the authority of the Prophtet, in mursal form. Ata' and others also reported in mursal form that when the Prophet walked to the top of the pulpit, he would turn to the people and say: "Peace be upon you." According to ashSha'biy: "Abu Bakr and 'Umar used to do that [also]."
As-Sa'ib ibn Yazid informs: "The first azhan to salah made on the day of Jumu'ah was made when the imam sat upon the pulpit during the time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, and 'Umar. Then, during the time of 'Uthman, since there were many people, he instituted a third azhan outside the mosque. The Prophet only had one mu'azhzhin." This is related by alBukhari, an-Nasa'i, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: "During the time of 'Uthman, there were many people, so 'Uthman ordered the people to make a third call to salah on the day of Jumu'ah, outside of the mosque, and that practice has continued."
Ahmad and an-Nasa'i record: "Bilal would make the azhan to salah when the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam sat upon the pulpit, and he would make the iqamah when the Prophet came down from the pulpit."
'Adi ibn-Thabit relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather who said: "When the Prophet ascended the pulpit, he would face his companions." This is related by Ibn Majah. Concerning this latter hadilh, although there is some doubt about it, at-Tirmizhi says: "The people of knowledge from among the companions and others follow that and they prefer that the imam face the people when delivering the khutbah. "
Fiqh 2.138: Contents of the khutbah
It is preferred that the Friday khutbah include praises of Allah, the Exalted, prayers upon the Prophet, admonitions, and Qur'anic recitations.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wassallam said: "Every speech that does not begin with the praises of Allah is defective." This is related by Abu Dawud. Ahmad has something similar to it.
In another version, it is stated: "The Friday khutbah that does not contain the testimony ["There is no God except Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger] is like the defective hand." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.
Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet would say in his opening testimony: "All praise be to Allah, we seek His aid and we seek His forgiveness and we seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our souls. Whomever Allah guides, no one will be able to mislead him. Whoever He leaves astray will have no guidance for him. And I testify that there is no God except Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger whom He sent with the truth and as a warner before the Hour. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be guided aright, and whoever disobeys them will only harm his own self and he will not harm Allah, the Exalted, at all."
Ibn Shihab was asked about the Prophet's opening testimony during his khutbah on the day of Jumu'ah, and he said something similar to that except that he stated: "Whoever disobeys them has gone astray." Abu Dawud related both of these reports.
Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Messenger of Allah would deliver his khutbah standing, would sit in between the two khutbahs, would recite some verses, and would remind the people [about Allah]." This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi.
The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadith recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: "We are the last [of the people to come] but the first on the day of resurrection. They received their books before us and we got ours after them. This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed concerning it, and Allah guided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow and the Christians the day after tomorrow."
Jabir also related that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would not make his admonitions on Friday too long, but give a very short khutbah. This is related by Abu Dawud.
Umm Hisham bint Harithah ibn an-Nu'man says: "I learnt [Surah] Qaf of the Glorious Qur'an from the Prophet for he recited it upon the pulpit every Friday when he addressed the people." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, an-Nasa' i, and Abu Dawud .
Ya'la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on the pulpit: "And they cry: O Malik!..." (az-Zukhruf 77). This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn Majah records from Ubayy that the Messenger of Allah recited: "Blessed is He..." [Surah al-Mulk] on Friday while he was standing. In ar-Raudah an-Nadiyah, it is stated: "Thus the required khutbah, in terms of Islamic law, should be modeled after the Prophet's khutbah exhorting people to do good and warning them against dire consequences of the evil. This is the spirit of the address which the Islamic law has instituted. As to the other contents of the khutbah, like praising Allah, saying prayers upon His Messengers or reciting a portion of the Qur'an, none of these is its main purpose, which is to admonish people... It has been customary among the Muslims [in the light of the sunnah] that if one wanted to make some sort of proclamation, he would begin with praises of Allah and prayers upon His Prophet, or something of that nature. Still, that is not the purpose of the khutbah; indeed, the purpose is that which is said after praises of Allah and prayers for the prophet. If a person delivers a khutbah and confines it to only praising Allah and saying prayers upon the Prophet, his khutbah would hardly be acceptable. Any person with common sense could understand that.
It is the admonitary aspect of the Friday khutbah which the hadith emphasise, and if a khatib makes an admonition, he fulfills the purpose of shari'ah; if he precedes his khutbah with praises of Allah and prayers upon the Prophet and during his admonitions he uses Qur'anic verses, then he does it in a complete and satisfactory manner."
Fiqh 2.139: Posture during and between the khutbahs
It is proper for the imam to stand for the two khutbas and to sit for a short while in between them.
Ibn 'Umar said: "When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would deliver the Khutbatul Jumu'ah, he did so standing, and then he would sit, and then he would stand [again, for the second khutbah] as the people do today." This is related by the group.
Jabir ibn-Samura said: "The Prophet would deliver the khutbah while standing, and then he would sit, and then he would stand and speak again. Whoever says that he gave the khutbah while sitting has lied. Verily, I prayed with him more than two thousand prayers [including the five daily prayers]." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.
Ibn abi-Shaibah records that Tawus said: "The Prophet gave the khutbah while standing and so did Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman. The first one to give khutbah while sitting upon the pulpit was Mu'awiyyah," Ibn abiShaibah also records from ash-Sha'biy that Mu'awiyyah used to deliver the khutbah while sitting, when he became overweight. Some of the scholars say that it is obligatory to deliver the khutbah while standing and it is also obligatory to sit in between the two khutbahs. They cite the example of the Prophet and his companions who always did so; however, the fact that they consistently performed an act is not sufficient to prove that it is fard (obligatory) .
Fiqh 2.140: It is preferred to raise one's voice, to keep the khutbah short, and to the point
Ammar ibn Yasir reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Prolonging salah and shortening one's khutbah is a sign of one's understanding of the religion. So, prolong the prayer and shorten the khutbah." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim. Shortening the khutbah and prolonging one's salah shows one's understanding of religion, for such a person is able to comprehend and express much in a few words.
Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Prophet's salah was of a moderate length and so was his khutbah." This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.
'Abdullah ibn abi Aufa reports: "The salah of the Messenger of Allah was long and his khutba.i was short." This is related by an-Nasa'i with a sahih chain.
Jabir informs: "When the Prophet delivered the khutbah, his eyes became red, his voice rose, and his anger increased as if giving a warning to the enemy." This is related by Muslim and Ibn Majah.
An-Nawawi says: "It is preferred for the khutbah to be in an eloquent and proper Arabic, and it should be an organized speech that the people can understand. It should not be a speech, which is over the heads of the people, nor should it be shallow or contain foul language as that would defeat its purpose. Its words should be chosen carefully to make them attractive and meaningful."
Giving his views on the subject, Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The khutbah of the Prophet reinforced the fundamental articles of faith, like belief in Allah, the Exalted, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the meeting with Him. He would mention the paradise and the hellfire and what Allah, the Exalted, has promised to His devoted servants and the people who obey Him and what Allah has promised to His enemies and the miscreant. While listening to his khutbah, the hearts would be filled with belief in Allah, His oneness, and His majesty. His khutbahs were not like speeches of those who speak only of matters of concern of common folk, lamenting earthly life and frightening people of the approaching death. Such speeches cannot inspire faith in Allah or strengthen belief in His oneness or move people by allusion to His mighty works in history, nor can they kindle in hearts intense love for Allah, making the listeners look forward eagerly to the time they will meet Him! The people who hear such speeches gain no benefit at all, except that they will die and that their wealth will be distributed and their bodies will be turned to dust. Woe to such poets, what sort of faith is fostered by such sermons, and what sort of tawhid do they teach or knowledge disseminate? If we study the khutbahs of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and his companions, we find them embued with perspicuous guidance, tawhid, attributes of Allah, explaining the basic articles of the faith, inviting people to Allah, and drawing their attention to His providential care that makes Him so beloved to His slaves. His khutbahs referred to Allah's dealings with others in the past so as to wam his listeners against His wrath and exhort them to remember Him, thank Him and win His pleasure and love. Those who heard these khutbahs were inspired with the love of Allah and they looked forward eagerly to meeting their Lord. As time went by, the example of the Prophet was forgotten and other things prevailed. The main purpose of the khutbah was forgotten. The eloquent and nice words that moved the hearts became rare in speeches. The main thrust of the khutbah was neglected. The hearts were no longer touched and the basic purpose of the khutbah was lost."
Fiqh 2.141: The imam interrupting his khutbah for some reason
Abu Hurairah reports: "The Prophet was delivering a khutbah and al-Hassan and al-Hussain [his grandsons] came and they were wearing two red shirts and they were tripping while walking. The Prophet came down from the pulpit and picked them up and placed them in front of himself, and then he said: 'Allah and His Messenger have told the truth. Verily, your wealth and children are a trial. I looked to these two children walking and tripping, and I could not be patient, so I cut off my khutbah and went to pick them up."' This is related by the five.
Abu Rifah al-'Adwi says: "I went to the Prophet while he was delivering a khutbah, and I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, this strange man has come to ask about his religion as he does not know what his religion is.' The Prophet turned to me and left his speech, he came to me and he was given a wooden chair with four iron legs, and he started to teach me what Allah had taught him and then he went back to complete his khutbah." This is related by Muslim and an-Nasa'i.
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would interrupt his khutbah due to some reason, or to respond to a question from some of his companions.
Sometimes he would descend from the pulpit due to some need and then return and complete his khutbah, as he did when he picked up al-Hassan and al-Hussain. He took them and then returned with them to the pulpit. Sometimes he would interrupt his khutbah to say things to certain people, [e.g.,] 'Sit, so and so,' 'Pray, so and so.' [Sometimes] he ordered them to take care of certain things during his khutbah."
Fiqh 2.142: It is forbidden to speak during the khutbah
The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is obligatory to be silent during the khutbah, and one is not to indulge in conversation during the khutbah, not even if it is to order one to do some good or to stop some evil, and this rule applies whether or not the person sitting in the mosque can actually hear the khutbah.
Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever speaks in Jumu'ah while the imam is delivering the khutbah is like a donkey who is carrying books, and for those who tell him to be quiet, there is no [reward] for the Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad, ibn abi-Shaibah, al-Bazzar, and at-Tabarani. Ibn Hajar said in Bulugh alMaram: "There is no fault in its chain."
'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "There are three types of people who attend the Jumu'ah: one, a man who is present but speaks [during the speech], and that is his portion of the prayer; two, a man who is present and makes supplications - in his case, Allah may give him what he asks, if He wishes, or He may not give him what he asks, three, a person who is present and observes silence and does not step over the necks of the Muslims nor harm anyone - for him, there is expiation from that Jumu'ah until the next Jumu'ah plus an additional three days as Allah has said: 'He that does good shall have ten times as much to his credit.'" This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud with a good chain.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "If, during the Jumu'ah while the imam is delivering khutbah, you tell your companion to be quiet, then you have spoken needlessly." This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.
Abu ad-Darda' says: "The Prophet was upon the pulpit and was addressing the people and he recited a verse, and next to me was Ubayy ibn-Ka'b and I asked him: When was that verse revealed?' He refused to talk to me until the Messenger of Allah came down from the pulpit and then he said to me: 'You have nothing from your Jumu'ah, except your useless talk.' When the Prophet had finished, I went to him and informed him of what had happened, and he said: 'Ubayy has told the truth. If you hear your imam speaking, be quiet until he is finished.''' This is related by Ahmad and at-Tabarani.
Ahmad and ash-Shaf'i are reported to have made a distinction, concerning this ruling, between one who can hear the speech and the one who cannot hear the speech, saying that speaking is forbidden for the former and not for the latter, although it is preferred for the latter also to be silent.
At-Tirmizhi records that Ahmad and Ishaq made an exception for replying to a salutation and responding to a sneeze while the imam is delivering the Friday khutbah. According to ash-Shaf'i: "If a person sneezes [during the khutbah] and someone says: 'May Allah bless you,' I wish I could have accomadated it since such a reply is a sunnah. In my view it is makruh that a person should greet someone with salam [while they are listening to the khutbah]. [What makes it worse is] that his salam is not returned, even though saying salam is a sunnah while responding to it is a fard.
Fiqh 2.143: Indulging in conversation when the khutbah is not being delivered, is permissible
Tha'labah ibn abi-Malik says: "We would be talking on Jumu'ah while 'Umar was sitting on the pulpit and when the call to salah was finished 'Umar would stand and no one would utter a word until he had completely finished both of his khutbahs. When the iqamah was made and 'Umar came down from the pulpit, the people would then speak." This is related by ash-Shaf'i in his Musnad.
Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that while the azhan was being made, 'Uthman ibn-'Affan would be sitting on the pulpit, apprising the people of their situation and the prices of some commodities.
Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that if a person catches only one rak'ah of al-Jumu'ah, then that rak'ah will be valid and the person need only make up the one rak'ah that he misses.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever catches only one rak'ah of the salah and then adds to it the other one, his prayer will be complete." This is related by an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and ad-Daraqutni. In Bulugh al-Maram, Ibn Hajar says that its chain is sahih although Abu Hatim says that the strongest opinion is that it is mursal.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever catches one rak'ah of the prayer has indeed caught the whole prayer." This is related by the group.
Whoever catches less than one rak'ah of the salah has not caught the Jumu'ah and he is to pray four rak'at of the zuhr salah according to the majority of the scholars.
Ibn Mas'ud says: "Whoever catches one rak'ah from al-Jumu'ah is only to add another one to it. Whoever misses both rak'at is to pray four rak'at." This is related by at-Tabarani with a good chain.
Ibn 'Umar says: "If one catches from the Friday salah one rak'ah, then he is to add another one to it. If he catches only the sitting [at the end of the prayer, following the bowing], then he is to pray four [rak'at]." This is related by al-Baihaqi. Such is the opinion of the Shaf'i, Maliki, and Hanbali schools, and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan. Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf say that if one catches the tashahud with the imam, then he has caught al-Jumu'ah. He should pray two rak'at after the imam makes the taslim, and his Friday salah would be complete.
Fiqh 2.144: Offering the salah in a crowded area
Ahmad and al-Baihaqi relate from Sayyar that 'Umar was giving an address and said: "The Messenger of Allah built this mosque and we were with him [i.e., the emigrants and the helpers], and if it becomes very crowded, a person among you is to make the prostration on the back of his brother." When, he saw some people praying in the street, he said to them: "Pray in the mosque."
It is a sunnah to pray four rak'at or two rak'at after al-Jumu'ah: Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever is to pray after the Jumu'ah should pray four rak'at." This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.
Ya'la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on the pulpit: "And they cry: O Malik!..." (az-Zukhruf 77). This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn 'Umar says: "The Prophet would pray two rak'at in his house on the day of Jumu'ah." This is related by the group.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "After the Prophet finished the Jumu'ah, he would enter his house and pray two rak'at, and he ordered those who prayed the Jumu'ah to pray four rak'at after it.
Our sheikh Ibn Taimiyyah says: 'When he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four [rak'at], and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at.' I say: this is what the hadith is pointing to. Abu Dawud records from ibn 'Umar that when he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four rak'at, and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at. Also, in the two Sahihs it is reported from ibn 'Umar that the Prophet would pray two rak'at in his house after the Friday salah."
If one prays four rak'at, then, according to some, he is to pray them all connected, while others hold that he is to pray two rak'at, make the taslim, followed by another two rak'at. It is preferred to pray them in one's house. If one prays them in the mosque, he should change his place of prayer after the Friday salah.
Concerning any sunnah prayer before the Friday salah, Ibn Taimiyyah writes: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam never offered any salah after the azhan and before the Friday salah, and no one has ever related such an act from him. During the Prophet's time, there was only one azhan and that was made when the Prophet sat upon the pulpit. Bilal would make the azhan and then the Prophet would give the two khutbahs. Next, Bilal would make the iqamah and the Prophet would lead the people in salah. It is not possible that the Prophet would have made a salah after the azhan nor anyone else among the Muslims who prayed with the Prophet could have done so. And we have no evidence to show that the Prophet, sallallahu alehi wasallam, prayed in his house before going out to the mosque on Friday. He did not specify any time for any salah before the Friday salah. What he said was meant to exhort those going early to the mosque on Friday to engage themselves in prayer. He said: 'Whoever goes out early and walks and does not ride to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed [by Allah] for him...' That has been related from the Prophet's companions. When they would reach the mosque on Friday, they would pray whatever amount was easy for them. Some of them prayed ten rak'at and some prayed twelve and some only eight and others less than that. For this reason most of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no sunnah prayer with a specified number of rak'ah or time, before aljumu'ah, for there is nothing either in the actions or statements of the Prophet to support or confirm it.
Fiqh 2.145: Salatul Jumu'ah and Salatul 'Id occurring on the same day
If the day of 'Id occurs on Jumu'ah, then salatul Jumu'ah is no longer an obligation upon those who performed the salatul 'Id.
Zaid ibn Arqam says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed the salatul 'id and then he gave an exemption concerning the Jumu'ah, saying: 'Whoever wishes to pray it may pray it.'" This is related by the five and al-Hakim. Ibn Khuzaimah calls it sahih.
Abu Hurairah reports that the prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Two festivals have occurred together on this day of yours. For whosoever desires, this will suffice for his salatul Jumu'ah, but we are going to perform salatul Jumu'ah." This is related by Abu Dawud.
It is preferred for the imam to perform the Jumu'ah so anyone who wishes to perform it may do so as well as those who were not able to attend the 'id prayer. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "We are going to perform the salatul Jumu'ah."
According to the Hanbali school, the zuhr is obligatory upon anyone who does not attend the salatul Jumu'ah because he has performed the 'id prayer. Nevertheless, it apparently is not obligatory as there is a hadith in Sunan Abu Dawud in which Ibn az-Zubair says: "'Id and Jumu'ah occurred on the same day so he joined them and prayed two rak'at at an early time, and did not add anything to it until 'asr.
Fiqh 2.147: Id prayers (Salatul 'Idain)
The prayers of the two 'ids was prescribed in the first year after the migration. It is a sunnah mu'kkadah as the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always performed these prayers and he ordered the men and women to go out to attend them.
It is preferred to make the ghusl, perfume one's self and don one's best attire on the occasions of the two 'ids.
Ja'far ibn-Muhammad relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather who reported that the Prophet would wear a Yemeni cloak on every 'id. This is related by ash-Shaf'i and al-Baghawi.
Al-Hassan as-Sibt says: "The Messenger of Allah ordered us to wear the best clothes we could find for the two 'ids and to apply the best perfume we could find and to sacrifice the best animal we could find." This is related by al-Hakim and in its chain is Ishaq ibn Barzakh whom al-'Azdi declares to be weak while Ibn Hibban says he is trustworthy.
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet used to wear his most beautiful clothes for them and he had a special cloak that he would wear on the two 'ids and Jumu'ah.
One is to eat before going to the salah for 'idul fitr, (the end of Ramadan) but not do so on the occasion of the 'idul azha (commemmorating Prophet Ibrahim's sacrifice). For 'idul fitr, it is a sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray salatul 'id while for 'idul azha the eating should be delayed until one returns from the 'id prayers and then he may eat of his sacrifice if he has sacrificed an animal.
Anas reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the festival of breaking the fast until he had eaten an odd number of dates." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari.
Buraidah reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the day of breaking the fast ('idul fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice ('idul azha) he would not eat until he had returned [from salah]." This is related by at-Tirmizhi and Ibn Majah, and also by Ahmad who added: "And he would eat from his sacrifice."
In al-Muwatta' it is recorded from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab that the people were ordered to eat before they go out on the day of breaking the fast.
Ibn-Qudamah said: "I do not know of any difference of opinion over the fact that one should hasten in eating [eat early] on the day of breaking of the fast."
Fiqh 2.148: Going out to the musalla (place of prayer)
Salatul 'id can be performed in the mosque but it is preferred to perform in a place outside the city as long as there is no excuse or reason to do otherwise (e.g., rain and so on) as the Prophet would pray the two 'ids in the outskirts of Medinah and he never prayed it in his mosque, except once and because it was raining.
Abu Hurairah reports that it was raining on the day of 'id, so the Prophet led them in salatul 'id in the mosque. This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim, and its chain contains an unknown narrator. Al-Hafiz says in at-Talkhis: "Its chain is weak," and azh-Zhahabi asserts: "This hadith is rejected."
Shari'ah requires women and children to go out and attend the salatul 'idain. This includes married, single, young, old, or menstruating women.
Umm 'Atiyah reports: "We were ordered to go out with the single and menstruating women to the two 'ids in order to witness the good and the supplications of the Muslims. The menstruating women would be separate from the others." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas says that the Prophet would take his wives and daughters to the two 'ids. This is related by Ibn-Majah and al-Baihaqi.
Ibn 'Abbas further reports: "I went out with the Prophet on the day of breaking the fast or of the sacrifice, and he prayed and gave a khutbah, and then he went to the women and admonished them, reminded them of Allah, and ordered them to give charity." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is preferred for a person to go to the salah by one route and then to return home through another route, regardless of whether he be the imam or a member of the congregation.
Jabir reports: "On the days of 'id, the Prophet would take different routes." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Abu Hurairah says: "When the Prophet went to salatul 'id, he would return through a different route." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmizhi .
It is permissible to return through the same route by which one goes to the musalla. Bakr ibn Mubashir says: "I used to go with the companions of the Prophet to the musalla on 'idul azha and on 'idul fitr, and we passed through a specific valley in Medinah until we came to the place of salah and prayed with the Messenger of Allah, and then we would return to our houses through the same valley." This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and by al-Bukhari in his Tarikh. Ibn as-Sakin says that its chain is acceptable.
Fiqh 2.149: The time of 'Id prayers
The time for salatul 'id begins from the time the sun is three meters above the horizon until the sun reaches its meridian.
Ahmad ibn Hassan al-Bana' records that Jundub said: "The Prophet prayed the 'idul fitr prayer while the sun was [approximately] six meters above the horizon and the 'id of the sacrifice while the sun was three meters above the horizon."
Ash-Shaukani says: "That is the best of what has been related concerning the specific time of salatul 'idain and the hadith shows that it is preferred to hasten in praying salatul azha and to delay the salatul fitr."
Ibn Qudamah says: "It is a sunnah to pray salatul azha early in order to allow more time for the people to perform the sacrifice, and the salatul fitr is to be delayed in order to give people time to pay zakat al-Fitr. I know of no difference of opinion on this point."
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "When the Messenger of Allah went to the musalla (place of prayer), he would perform the salah without any azhan or iqamah and without saying 'as-salatu jami'ah' (prayer in congregation). The sunnah is not to do any of that."
Ibn 'Abbas and Jabir both report that there was no azhan on the day of the breaking of the fast or on the day of sacrifice. This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Muslim records that 'Ata said: "Jabir informed me that there is no azhan for the 'id of breaking the fast, neither when the imam arrives nor afterward. And there is no iqamah or call of any kind."
Sa'd ibn abi-Waqqas reports: "The Prophet prayed salatul 'id without any azhan or iqamah. He would deliver two khutbahs standing and would seperate them by sitting between them.' This is related by al-Bazzar.
Fiqh 2.150: The takbir during salatul 'idain
The 'id prayer consists of two rak'at during which it is sunnah to pronounce the takbir seven times, after the opening takbir and before the Qur'anic recital in the first rak'ah. During the second rak'ah, one makes takbir five times after the takbir which is customarily made for standing after the prostration. One is to raise one's hands during each pronouncement of the takbir. This is based on a report transmitted from 'Umar and his son Abdullah.
'Amr ibn Shu'aib reports from his father on the authority of his grandfather that the Prophet would make twelve takbirat during the 'id prayer, seven in the first rak'ah and five in the second. He did not pray before or after the 'id. This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Ahmad says: "I follow that."
Abu Dawud and ad-Daraqutni report that the Prophet said: "The takbirat during the ['id of breaking the fast are seven in the first rak'ah and five in the second, and the Qur'anic recital comes after them in both the rak'at." This is the strongest opinion and it is the opinion of the majority of the people of knowledge from among the companions, the successors, and the imams. Ibn Abdul-Barr commenting on the number of takbirat, says: "It has been related through many good chains that the Prophet made seven takbirat in the first rak'ah and five in the second. Such has been related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr, Ibn 'Umar, Jabir, 'Aishah. Abu Waqid, and 'Amer ibn 'Auf al-Mazni. Nothing that has been related from him, either through a stonger or weaker chain, differs from that, and it was the first to be practiced."
As to the pause between takbirat, it is said that the Prophet would be silent for a short period of time between the takbirat, and nothing has been related from him concerning exactly what he said during that pause; however, at-Tabarani and al-Baihai relate, with a strong chain, that Ibn Mas'ud would praise and extol Allah, the Exalted, and make prayers upon the Prophet during such intervals. The same has been recorded from Huzhaifah and Abu Musa. Pronouncing the takbirat are a sunnah even though the salah is not invalidated if one neglects them, either intentionally or out of forgetfulness.
Ibn Qudamah says: "I know of no difference of opinion on that point." Ash-Shaukani states that the strongest opinion is that if one does not perform the takbirat out of forgetfulness, he is not to perform the prostrations of forgetfulness.
Fiqh 2.151: Prayer before or after salatul 'id
It is not established that there is any sunnah prayer before or after the 'id prayer. The Prophet never performed any such prayer, neither did his companions upon arrival at the musalla (prayer place).
Ibn 'Abbas reports: "The Messenger of Allah went out to the site of the 'id prayer and prayed two rak'at [i.e., the 'id prayer] without praying anything before or after it." This is related by the group.
It is reported that Ibn 'Umar did the same and he stated that this was the practice of the Prophet.
Al-Bukhari records that Ibn 'Abbas disliked that one should perform a prayer before salatul 'id. Concerning voluntary prayers at such a time, Ibn Hajar has stated in Fath al-Bari that there is no evidence to show that it is not allowed, unless it is at the times in which it is disliked to pray on any day.
The 'id prayer is valid for men, women, children, travellers, residents, people in congregation, and people praying individually. It is also valid if performed in a house, mosque, or a distant place designated for the salah, and so on.
In Sahih al-Bukhari we find in the chapter entitled: "If one misses salatul 'id he may pray two rak'at and the same is the case for the women or people in their houses or in the countryside. This is based on the Prophet's words: 'O Muslims, this is our festival."' Anas ibn Malik ordered his protege Ibn abi-'Utbah, [who lived] in a remote area, to gather his family and children and to pray [the 'id prayer] like the people in the city and with takbirat similar to theirs. 'Ikrimah said: "The people of the country should gather for the 'id and pray two rak'at as the imam does." 'Ata says: "If you miss the 'id [salah], pray two rak'at."
The khutbah after salatul id is a sunnah and so is listening to it. Abu Sa'id says: "On the id of breaking the fast and of the sacrifice, the Prophet would go to the musalla (prayer place) and begin with the salah and when he finished, he would face the people while the people were sitting in rows, and he would admonish them, advise them, and exhort them [to do good deeds]. And if he wished to send off an army or order something, he would do so and then leave." Abu Sa'id then says: "The people continued to act likewise until I went out with Marwan, while he was the govenor of Medinah, for one of the two 'ids. When I arrived at the place of prayer, I found a minbar that was built by Kathir ibn as-Salt. When Marwan went to mount it before the prayer, I pulled him by his clothes. He pushed me away and gave the khutbah before the salah. I said to him: 'By Allah you have changed [the order].' He said: 'O Abu Sa'id...what you know is gone.' I said: 'By Allah, what I know is better than what I don't know.' He said: 'The people would not stay with us after the salah so we made the khutbah before the salah.'" This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Abdullah ibn as-Sa'ib said: "I prayed the 'id salah with the Messenger of Allah and when he finished the salah he said: 'We will be delivering a khutbah. Whoever wishes to stay for the khutbah may stay. Whoever would like to leave, may leave . ' " This is related by an-Nasa' i, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.
Whatever has been recorded suggests that there are two khutbahs for the 'id and the imam sits between them [i.e., like the khutbatul Jumu'ah]. Such reports are considered weak. An-Nawawi says: "There is nothing at all substantiated about there being more than one khutbah."
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would begin all of his khutbahs with the praise of Allah and there is no hadith from him that states that he began his 'id khutbahs with takbir.
Ibn Majah recorded in his Sunan from Sa'id, the mu'azhzhin of the Prophet, that the Prophet would say the takbir during his khutbahs and even more so during the 'id khutbahs. Still, this does not prove that he began his khutbah with it! The people differ over the beginning of the 'id and the khutbah for salatul istisqa' (prayer for rain). Some say that they are to begin with takbir. Some say that the khutbah for salatul istisqa' begins with praying for forgiveness while others say it begins with praises of Allah." Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taimiyyah says: "That is correct as the Prophet said: 'Every affair that does not begin with the praise of Allah is deficient.' The Prophet began all of his speeches with praises of Allah. Concerning the statement of many jurists, i.e.. he began the 'prayer for rain' by asking forgiveness from Allah and the id speech with takbir, there is absolutely no proof for it in the Prophet's sunnah. In fact the sunnah contradicts that statement as he began all of his speeches with the praises of Allah."
Fiqh 2.152: Making up a missed 'id prayer
Abu 'Umair ibn Anas reports: "My Ansari uncles from among the companions of the Messenger of Allah said to me: 'The moon for the month of Shawwal was hidden from us and, therefore, our companions fasted. Then at the end of the day, riders came and they bore witness to the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam that they had seen the moon the previous night. The Prophet ordered the people to break their fasts and to go out to the site of the salatul 'id on the next day.'" This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah with a sahih chain. In this hadith there lies evidence for those who say that if the people miss salatul 'id due to some excuse, then they may go out and pray it the next day.
Fiqh 2.153: Playing, amusements, singing, and eating on the days of 'id
Recreation, amusements, and singing, if they stay within the moral bounds, are permissible on the days of 'id.
Anas reports: "When the Prophet came to Medinah they had two days of sport and amusement. The Prophet said: "Allah, the Exalted, has exchanged these days for two days better than them: the day of breaking the fast and the day of sacrifice." This is related by an-Nasa'i and Ibn Hibban with a sahih chain.
'Aishah says: "The Abyssinians were preforming in the mosque on the day of 'id. I looked over the Prophet's shoulders and he lowered them a little so I could see them until I was satisfied and left." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim also record that she said: "Abu Bakr entered upon us on the day of 'id and there were some slave girls who were recounting [in song the battle of] Bu'ath in which many of the brave of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj were killed. Abu Bakr said: 'Slaves of Allah, you play the pipes of the Satan!' He said it three times. The Prophet said to him: 'O Abu Bakr, every people have a festival and this is our festival."' In al-Bukhari's version, 'Aishah said: "The Messenger of Allah, entered the house and I had two girls who were singing about the battle of Bu'ath. The Prophet lied down on the bed and turned his face to the other direction. Abu Bakr entered and spoke harshly to me, 'Musical instruments of the Satan in the presence of the Messenger of Allah!' The Messenger of Allah turned his face to him and said: 'Leave them.' When Abu Bakr became inattentive I signaled to the girls to leave. It was the day of 'id and the Africans were performing with their shields and spears. Either I asked him or the Prophet asked if I would like to watch them [I don't recall now]. I replied in the affirmative. At this the Prophet made me stand behind him and my cheek was against his. He was saying: 'Carry on, O tribe of Arfadah,' until I tired. The Prophet asked: 'Is that enough for you?' I replied: "yes," so he said: 'Leave [then].'"
Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari, "Ibn as-Siraj related from Abu az-Zinad on the authority of 'Urwah from 'Aishah that the Prophet said that day: 'Let the Jews of Medinah know that our religion is spacious [and has room for relaxation] and I have been sent with an easy and straight forward religion. "'
Ahmad and Muslim record from Nubaishah that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The days of tashriq (i.e., the days in which the 'id is celebrated) are days of eating and drinking [non alcoholic drinks] and of remembering Allah, the Exalted."
Fiqh 2.154: The excellence of good deeds in the first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah
Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these days [meaning the ten days of Zhul-Hijjah]." The companions asked: "O Messenger of Allah, not even jihad in the way of Allah?" He said: "Not even jihad, save for the man who puts his life and wealth in danger [for Allah's sake] and returns with neither of them." This is related by the group save Muslim and an-Nasa'i.
Ahmad and at-Tabarani record from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah said: "There is no day more honorable in Allah's sight and no acts more beloved therein to Allah than those in these ten days. So say tahlil ["There is no God but Allah"], takbir [Allah is the greatest] and tahmid ["All praise is due to Allah"] a lot [on those days]."
Ibn 'Abbas says about the 'ayah, "Remember Allah during the well known days," that it refers to the first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah. This is related by al-Bukhari. Sa'id ibn Jubair would push himself very hard [to do good deeds] during these ten days.
Al-Auza'i says: "It has reached me that a deed on one of the ten days is similar to fighting in the way of Allah, fasting during its days and guarding during its nights, except for him who becomes a martyr." As to its source, he adds: "A man from the tribe of Bani Makhzum related that to me from the Prophet."
Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet said: "There are no days more loved to Allah for you to worship Him therein than the ten days of ZhulHijja. Fasting any day during it is equivalent to fasting one year and to offer salatul tahajjud (late-night prayer) during one of its nights is like performing the late night prayer on the night of power. [i.e., Lailatul Qadr]." This is related by at-Tirmizhi, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi.
It is commendable to congratulate one another on the days of 'id.
Jabir ibn Nafir reports: "When the companions of the Prophet met each other on the day of 'id, they would say to each other, 'taqabbal minna wa minka [May Allah] accept it from us and you.'" Ibn Hajar said that its chain is hasan.
It is a sunnah to pronounce the takbirat on 'id days. Concerning the 'id of breaking the fast, Allah says "you should complete the prescribed period and that you should glorify Allah [i.e., say takbirat] for having guided you and that you may give thanks." Concerning the 'id of the sacrifice, Allah says: "that you may remember Allah during the well known days;" and: "He has made them subject to you, that you may glorify Allah for His guidance to you. The majority of the scholars say that the time for the takbirat during the 'id of breaking the fast is from the time one goes to the 'id prayer until the khutbah begins. Weak hadith have been recorded stating this, but there are also authentic reports from Ibn 'Umar and other companions that they did so. Al-Hakim says: "This sunnah has been practiced by ahl-il hadith. Malik, Ahmad, Ishaq, and Abu Thaur [have made statements concurring that practice] ."
Some say that the takbirat are from the night before the 'id, when the moon is seen, until the person goes to the musalla and the imam arrives. The time for the takbirat during the 'id of the sacrifice is from the day of 'Arafah until the time of the 'asr on the thirteenth of Zhul-Hijjah.
Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "None of that has been confirmed from the Prophet. The most authentic report from the companions is that 'Ali and Ibn Mas'ud would make the takbirat from the day of 'Arafah to the 'asr of the last day of Mina. Ibn al-Munzhir and others reported it. AshShaf'i, Ahamd, Abu Yusuf, and Muhammad follow that report and it is also the view of 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbas."
There is no specific time for the takbirat during the days of tashriq (three days after 'idul azha). In fact, it is preferred to pronounce takbirat during every moment of those days.
Al-Bukhari recorded: "During 'Umar's stay at Mina, he would say takbirat in his tent [so loud] that the people in the mosque would hear it and then they would start doing it also and the people in the market place would do the same and all of Mina would resound with the takbirat. Ibn 'Umar used to say the takbirat, during those days of Mina, after the prayers and while on his bed, in his tent, while sitting and while walking during all of those days. Maimuna would say the takbirat on the day of sacrifice. The women used to say takbirat behind Abban ibn 'Uthman and 'Umar ibn 'Abdulaziz along with the men in the mosque during the days of tashriq." Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar said: "These reports show that the takbirat are made during all the times of these days, after salah and all other times. Some say the takbirat are made only after the salah, and some say they are to be made only after the fard prayers and not after nawafl, others declare them to be for men and not for women, while some say that they are only to be said in congregations and not individually, while others reserve them only for those who perform the salah on time and not for those who are making up a missed prayer, and some say only for residents and not travellers, whereas others think they are only for the people of the city and not for the people of the countryside. Apparently al-Bukhari is of the opinion that it is for all people and the reports that he has transmitted support his opinion."
These takbirat can be made in many different forms. The most authentic form is that which has been recorded with a sahih chain by 'Abdurrazaq from Salman, who said: "They made takbirat with: 'Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar kabeera."' From 'Umar and ibn Mas'ud the following is related: "Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar. La ilaha illallah. Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar wa lillahil-hamd." Translation: Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest. There is no God but Allah. Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest. All praise belongs to Allah.