DISTINGUISHED ISLAMIC FIGURES AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE CULTURAL AND SPRITUAL EDUCATION OF ALBANIA
Distinguished figures regardless the field they belong help in the development and advancement of a given nation. That’s why every nation makes them immortal in certain manner by naming cities, streets, institutions, schools, etc after them. To forget a name is a mistake. To deny a name composes a historical crime. An intended manipulation also constitutes a crime.
The 20th century Albanian history is full of curves, full of tides, silent heroes. The history pages of this century record two World Wars, one Balkan War, some flags’ hoist, one declaration of independence, some battles, some congresses, some laic constitutions (atheistic), some deportations, one anti-clerical genocide, some campaigns for the demolition of sanctuaries, clerics etc.
In this century’s whirl a great number of Islamic thinkers, preachers and fighters have lived, acted and fought. Some of them are made known because of their grandiose work in important historical events, but some others have yielded to the deep silence. It was an inside call, a national duty, a sense of justice, which led to shed the light and value these figures that uplifted Islam, our nation and which left us a rich inheritance.
The Albanians were really invaded by the Osmans and lost their independence, but although the fact that they embraced Islam, they never yielded to the invaders and were never assimilated by them. It is obviously that cultural, linguistic, ethnographical and other influences existed, but they never assimilated the language, customs and ethnical rituals.
A part of Albanians had high positions in government, army, religious field, diplomacy and cultural field. The motifs for their engagement in such positions were braveness, cleverness, the strong character and fidelity. A part of them even considered attaining these positions by aiming to help their own nation. In other words when the situation required the protection of the Albanian interest they didn’t yield to the request of the High Door.
Although the occupiers aimed the identification of religion with the nationality, these things were never achived. The main objective of religion is to prepare man for the eternal life without denying the actual life. In this aspect, Islam and nation are two notions, which do not contradict each other. This fact has influenced Albanians, a nation with ancient traditions, to embrace Islam, which was the occupiers’ religion.
The best example that illustrates this is Skanderbe, who besides the fact that was converted and educated according to Islam didn’t forget his national belonging. What is more, he fought for 25 years, in protection of national independence.
After the death of Skenderbe with the occupation of Albanian lands by Turkey1 the Muslim clerics have contributed greatly in the preservation of Albanian language, although they used Arabic alphabet. The Muslim clerics taught, advised and preached in the mosques in Albanian language. Even in the mejteps (elementary schools) they spoke Albanian and taught the pupils the love for Islam and their nation in the same language, using the Arabic or Turkish alphabet. By using this powerful medium they preserved the love for their language with the help of which they praised Islam and sang mevluds for their Prophet. By doing this they helped in the creation of entire poets generations. All these actions are representatives of a patriotic stand of Albanian ulema, myfties, Kadis and hafiz.
They were never incited a conflict between Muslims believers and their compatriots belonging to another religion, but on the contrary they led the believers regardless their religion to fight against their common enemy.
The Islamic clerics such as H. Sheh Shamia, fought for the rights of all people. It should be noted that a characteristic of Islamic clerics was their distinguished modesty. That’s why their activity is not so well known.
As time passed a generation of writers, poets and prosators evolved from the clerics. These writers were called “Bejtexhinj” by the Albanian literature. Part of bejtexhinj were Nezim Frakulla from Berat the author of “Divani” written according to the classical Iranian poetry models, Hasan Zyko Kamberi a famous poet not only in Starje, his birthplace, but in all the south Albania and Ali Riza Ulqinaku famous not only because of his “Mevlud” but also because of his passionate work as a children educator. Two other worth mentioning figures from Dukagjini are famous poets Jahja Bej Dukagjini and Ahmed Bej Dukagjini. The activity of both of them attracts our attention to 15-26th centuries. In their work there is a sense of pride expressed for the fact of being Albanians.2
All the above mentioned facts show the close tie of Albanian Islamic clerics and intellectuals with their religion, people and nation. For their patriotic act of preservation they were never rewarded by the occupiers but on the contrary were targeted in many occasions.
Were the moral values together with the power of the words transmitted from them in the mosques, which have educated the masses with religious values and love for their nation.
During the ups and downs of the history on several occasions the nation felt the need for imams, theoreticians who fought for the nation, kadis, poets, and politicians. The act of resistance against the Slavic, Greek and Nazifasist occupation is an extention of their efforts. They (Islamic Intellectuals) translated Qur’an and Ahadith by giving in this way their great contribution as far as the Islamic movement in Albanian lands of Kosova, Çameria, Macedonia and Montenegro is concerned.
By taking into consideration all their contributions we will try to make a conclusion of their activities. In this way we will make an effort to fill that entire vacuum created by the communist regime. Since our topic is being elaborated within the limits of the 20th century, we will consider only the figures that lived and acted in the 20th century without discarding those intellectuals who acted in the transition years between 19th – 20th centuries.
The main criterion followed in the listing is the chronological one, which is based on the date of their death.
We have tried to include all the distinguished figures from all Albanian lands without pretending that this is the ultimate form of our research in this field.
They may not be all “distinguished” in the classical sense of the word and what is more they may be very modest in a hierarchical aspect, but we will focus more on those who are distinguished for the grandeur of their religious and patriotic work.
PERSONALITIES OF THE ISLAMIC CULTURE THAT LIVED AND WORKED IN THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY AND THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY
Hoxhe Voka of Dibra
Said Najdeni3 is one of the distinguished activists of Albanian national movement who gave his contribution on the field of Albanian written language pedagogy in Dibra’s area.
Said Najdeni was born in Dibra on 1864. The elementary and secondary education of Said Najdeni was completed in Dibra while the high school was completed in “Hajdar” medrese of Fatih in Istanbul in 1888. After he graduated from this medrese Said Najdeni returned in Albania inspired with national ideas introduced by the contacts with famous representatives of Albanian national movement in Istanbul. Strong impressions gave to him his meeting with Naim Frasheri. On the way back he took with him a considerable number of primers which he utilized when Dibra School was founded in 1888.
The school was closed one year later by occupier’s authorities. Although it had a very short life this school had a great influence on the other people and contributed in the awakening of national consciousness. In 1833 Said Najdeni reopened the school and appointed Hoxhe Muglicen as a headmaster. Hoxhe Muglica was a graduated of Elbasan’s school. It should be noted that the continuation and the maintenance of this school faced great obstacles. But the obstacles didn’t stop Said Najdeni’s initiative. One year later the schools was again closed but by this time the need for an Albanian school was evident in all Dibra’s people.
Understanding the importance of direct contacts with Albanian movement’s leaders Said Najdeni travelled to Istanbul in 1895 but was arrested and incarcerated in the Edrese prison in which several other outstanding figures such as Haxhi Zeka, Hamdi Ohri, Ibrahim Mitrovica and others were imprisoned. After being set free he travelled to the Albanian vilajet of Shkodra, Manastir, Kosova, Janina and other Albanian settlements in Italy, Bulgaria and Romania. He was again incarcerated during his presence in Skopie but he was set free thanks to his friend’s interventions. In 1990 he reopened for the third time the Albanian school in Dibra. This school was of a great importance for the Dibra area.
Said Najdeni participated in many gatherings for the sovereignty of the nation such as the “Unity of Peja” (“Lidhja e Pejes) in which he presented his opinions.
There are two main works of Said Najdeni published in Latin alphabet. The first work “The religious guides for Muslims” (“Ferrefenjesja e Muslimaneve”) was published in Sofia on 1900 while the second work “Albanian language premier in Gheg dialect” (“abetare e gjuhes shqipe nder te fole gegerisht”) was published in 1990 in Sofia but without the name of the author (anonymous). 4 The first work is a religious one based on the Qur’anic principles, which are compulsory for each and every Muslim. It is basically a religious manual but it also contains a great deal of important patriotic and philosophical information. The problem of knowledge and backwardness is highly elaborated by Najdeni. He acknowledges two types of sources of knowledge; the religious one and the rational are (human mind as a source) which according to him are not in contradiction with each other. The knowledge for Najdeni is a strong armament which gives birth to national consciousness and expanse the human’s mind by giving him equality among others.
In this book he calls for mastering of Albanian language (reading and writing as well) and for protection of the national freedom and independence. By writing this work in the Istanbul alphabet he puts himself explicitly in the side of those who favoured the Latin alphabet. His slogan was “There is only one way which can save Albanians from the danger and this is the people should make up, learn their language and be the master of themselves”.
Tahir Efendi Huka’s 5 activity covers the two centuries6. His activity is very wide and original, which can really be noticed in his religious, pedagogical Albanian publications and in his pedagogically work in the mekteb founded by him in 1900/1318 H in Huke. For this reason he was included in the list of torches (great figures) of Albanian education in Kosova. Tahir Efendi Huka’s principle was that learning to read and write in the native language overpasses the backwardness and elevates the Albanian nation in the same level with other civilised countries
Tahir Efendi Huka completed his primary education in Skopie while the secondary and further education in Istanbul where he was distinguished for his excellent results. For this reason he was appointed muderis in the Islamic school of Fatih in Istanbul in which he worked nearly 10 years. His biographers testified that Tahir Efendi Huka collaborated with Hasan Tasini and other activists of national movement in Istanbul such as Jani Vreto. After the death of Hasan Tasini (1881), Tahir Efendi Huka returned in his birthplace (in the village Huke e Siperme) and founded an Albanian language mejtep.7
The Arabic alphabet was used in the mejtep for writing the Albanian language. Taking into consideration his publication in Albanian such as “Booklet regarding the moral” (“Risale-I ahlak”), “Mevludi”, the manuscript “Urata e besimtareve” (The benediction of believers) and others, together with the establishment of mejtep we may state that Tahir Efendi Huka gave a great contribution to the preservation of Albanian language.
He stressed out the value of the mother tongue especially the reading and writing process, which according to him will stop the backwardness of our nation and will place in it the same position with other civilised nations. “All the other nations do read and write their own languages by developing further in this way, while our nation is still in the point of stagnation.”8
Tahir Efendi Huka was known by the name “The little Tahir” since by the name “The great Tahir” was known Tahir Efendi Gjakova-boshnjaku. Tahir Efendi Huka had made efforts even before an adjustment of an Arabic alphabet to the Albanian language and he succeeded in doing so. He was fully convinced that Albanian language would have been learned very easily with the Arabic alphabet (It’s going to be really very easy”, “I’ve tried my best for the Albanian language”, “Everyone will be able to learn it easily”). Many other authors especially in Kosova used the Arabic alphabet for writing in Albanian. The Tahir Efendi Huka’s activity was considered as hostile from that time authority. When he travelled to Istanbul the government and fanatical circles accused him for his work.
His publishing activity together with other activities in the field of practical pedagogy has attracted the attention of many researchers such as Muhamed Piraku, Abdullah Hamiti etc. Tahir Efendi Huka died on the threshold of Manastir’s Congress.
Kadri Gjata10 is one of the outstanding figures of the Albanian national renaissance. He completed his primal and supplementary education in his birthplace Libohova. In Janina he finished his secondary education and later on settled there.11
In 1908 when independence was claimed Kadri Gjata was 43 years old and held the position of Janiana’s mufti. He had a good reputation among Albanian people of Janina. In the climate that existed after the coming of new Turks in power the patriotic club and his magazine “Zgjimi I Shqiperise” (“Awakening of Albania”) was established. The organisational part, which was an important aspect, was taken over by the patriot Bajo Topulli who was the chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Manastir and the organisation of patriotic fighting units in south. In the meeting organised for the club’s establishment Kadri Gjata was elected member of chairmanship in the presence of 300 and after 20 months he was elected the chairman of the club. During this period he established strong relations with Vuçi Naçin who was the director of the “Awakening of Albania” magazine.
The club under the direction of Kadri Gjata was called “Bashkimi” (“The unity) and had a very ambitious curriculum. It aimed the security of national rights expansion of Albanian education, the publication of books and other materials etc.13
Kadri Gjata also established an Albanian school and the “Toskeria” (1910) literary circle. The activity of “Bashkimi” club was famous in Cameria. All these activities made the name of Kadri Gjata well known but on the other side enlarged the hatred of new Turks and Greek chauvinists. In 12 July 1912 the Greek chauvinists organised the assassination of Kadri Gjata. The fighting unit, which carried out his assassination, was composed of 22 persons and leaded by Jani Puteci, Gogua and Farmaku.
The Albanian press in all Albanian territories mourned the death of honourable mufti of Janina by calling him “The martyr of nation”, “The immortal patriot”, “The heart and soul of Albania in Janina” and “The son of Albania”.
(Kraje, 1849 – Shkoder, 1912)
Jusuf Kraja is on of the well-known social and religious personalities of Kraja origin a zone ethnically pure Albanian and famous as heather of distinguished Albanologist and islamic intellectuals.
Jusuf Kraja the son of Ali was born in Keshtenja village of Kraja. Encouraged by his cousin Abdullah Begu a commander in Osmanli Empire Guard or according to another source Minister of treasure, Jusuf Kraja finished successfully his theological studies in Istanbul. His long staying in Istanbul and his friends together with his tribal’s circle enabled him to know closely outstanding Albanian personalities working there.
After his return from Istanbul apart from bringing with him a very reach library, he was distinguished for his concrete help for the social and educational advancement of his compatriots regardless their age.
He worked as an imam and teacher in Kraja, Postribe, Venshate and Shkodra by participating actively in political, religious and social life of Shkodra. The schools of Kraja area such as the school of Ostrit te Vogel (opened in 1896), Arbnesh (1895) and Skie (1892) maintained continuous contacts with Krajane intellectuals in Shkodra. Mulla Jusuf Kraja played an important role in these contacts. He was a religious functionary in an army unit and at the same time worked as an imam in the city. He harmonized naturally his religious activity with the national one even to the extent he co-operated with clerics of other regions such as the catholic clerics of Nenshat. These co-operations expressed a friendship not only between the two theologians but even between believers of different religions. Jusuf Kraja also worked as a teacher of history since 1900 in Ruzhdie School of the city.
Professor, doctor Hajrullah Koliqi in his monograph “Kraja through ages” writes: “Another Shkodran with Kraja origin was Jusuf Kraja. He was one of the most outstanding activists of National Renaissance in Shkodra and of Albanian education at the same time. Jusuf Kraja besides Luigj Gurakuqi, Musa Mejdes, Gasper Jakoves-Merturit, Shtejfen Gjecovit and other was one of the most distinguished Shkodran patriots”. 14
The absence of an organised state in Albanian lands had open the way to raids not only towards the individuals but even towards districts and villages by different robers. In the sermons Jusuf Kraja delivered he treated the actual problems of the jemah (people) especially in the villages where he openly suggested the organisation of defending their homes, wealth and honour by the raiders. Disliking the passivity he organised a form of defence which allowed no raiders to step on the village. Being unable to enter the village the bandits decided to raid a number of sheep in the village Mulla Jusuf worked. Hearing the dogs yelping Jusuf realised the danger and tried to signal with lights but was shot by the bandits. Then he signaled the other villagers by his gun and the entire village was mobilised and drove out the bandits.
After the death of Jusuf Kraja in 1912, in Kraja area two of his nephews continued the educational and religious activities. For the son of Jusuf’s sister Tahir Kandaqi, it is said “ there are tens of inhabitants and intellectuals of the area who are grateful to him for his work, the inspiration for many youngsters. His reach library in his house was often transformed into meeting place. He knew by heart 2000 verses of Naim and use to recite them to the youngsters. He talked to about the motherland, freedom, native language and encouraged them as a scholar, teacher and patriot.”15
Its inhabitants transform the grave of Tahir Kandaqi in Kraja into a tyrbe. It is aesthetically surrounded by marble and it constitutes a proper meditative place.
Mulla Hysen from Keshtenja is another nephew of Jusuf Kraja. Being the son of Jusuf’s brother he is also known as a devoted imam, educator and brave. His braveness is expressed in his protection of the persecuted by Yugoslav’s regime including here even the respect for the dead which were paid in contradiction with what the regime ordered.
The deficit of intellectual capabilities of Jusuf’s wife (for well known reasons of that period’s women) opened the way to the other to take a big number of Jusuf’s rare and precious books, his only treasure. After his death his books were scattered in the hands of different individuals who may had no potential at all for using or preserving them.
Hafiz Ali Riza Ulqinaku
One of the distinguished figures of National Renesissance is Hafiz Ali Riza Ulqinaku, an activist of the Albanian Unity of Prizren. According to L. Skendos Ali Ulqinaku belong to the literary and scientific Islamic Albanian tradition known as bejtexhinj.
He was born in Ulqin in 1953 where he finished his elementary school. Later on he continued his education in Shkodra and Istanbul. At the beginning he worked as an imam and mufti in Ulqin. Since in a young age he engaged himself translating and adjusting in Albanian literary, ethnical and teaching works.
He had left a considerable number of published works, manuscripts and translations. In 1884 he published a collection of three specific works” The Albanian translation of Turkish work “Huda Rabbim”, “Mewludin which was composed of four chapters, a total of 634 verses and a religious manual composed of 804 verses”. 16 While his manuscripts are composed of one Albanian primer and three dictionaries. The first dictionary is written in verses a method very successful and practical for learning foreign languages by elementary school children. The second is a Albanian-Turkish dictionary while the third one is a Turkish – Albanian dictionary. The “Mevludi Sherif” was translated in 1873. He brought its manuscripts when moving in Shkodra 1879. It was published in 1885/86 according to the author himself. This Mevlud was distributed rapidly in all the North Albanian Muslim lands. The Mevlud was copied and memorised. A didactic and patriotic flavour was added to it by the Ali Ulqinaku’s introduction (poetic in style). He wrote in the introductory part about the necessity of using the pure Albanian language.
Because of this reason he was expelled from Ulqin and was forced by the occupiers to settle in Shkodra and later on in Lexha.
Ali Ulqinaku engaged himself in literary, philosophy and pedagogical activities prompted not only from the religious duty but also from the need for education, culture and science, which existed among people. Another factor, which prompted Ulqinaku activities, was his love for Albanian language and its preservation.
He completed an Albanian alphabet based on Arabic letters aiming in this way the further spreading of Albanian language together with its preservation.
His literary work strongly influenced the men of letters later on. His influence can be seen easily in a generalisation of writers educated in different medrese in the period between two World Wars. He died in 1913. 18
The teacher of Gostivari and Struga
At the beginning of 20th century the youth hafiz from Strebleva of Golloborda was appointed teacher of French language in Gostivar after his graduation in Istanbul. The talented youngster was Hafiz Hariz Lila who later on was appointed the headmaster of”Idadije” school in Dibra and a mufti after a period of time. He was distinguished for his numerous religious and patriotic activities. Hariz Lila brought with him many Albanian books and distributed them secretly, propagandised the patriotic ideals and worked heavily for the spreading of Albanian alphabet. He opposed the Serbia propaganda and their attempts for invasion of Albanian lands.
His patriotic and anti-Slavic activity was discovered by Serbian army officers who arrested and executed him in the place called “Gezden te Stebleves” on 7th June 1915. Hafiz Hariz Lila is one of the martyrs of Albanian language and education.
The year1915 marked the death of Hoxhe Muglica, another martyr killed by Serbian soldier’s bullets in Ara e Sheremetit of Muglica. He died calling “Long live Albania! Long live Albanian people”. His calling drove crazy Serbian soldiers who had made numerous efforts to entrap the eloquent imam who fought for his religion and his nation.
Hoxhe Mugica was born in the village Okshtun of Golloborda in 1856. He was an outstanding propagator of national education, Albanian books and education in the area of Dibra. He took part in the congress of Dibra (1909) and in the second Congress of Manastir (1910). Hoxhe Mugica was one of the supporters of the first secondary school, which he often supplied with a great number of students from Golloborda, Okshtuni etc. He established a teaching centre in Dibra area and taught the students the written Albanian language.
Many of the renaissance activists among them Abdyl Frashri who were persecuted by Turks had formed a safe refuge in his house.
The distinguished personality - Rexhep Voka.
The distinguished personality Rexhep Voka was born in 1847 in the village of Shipkovice of Tetova. He received his primary education from imam of the village, while the secondary one in Tetova. Later on he continued his studies in Istanbul where he received the diploma of muderiz. Because of his excellent results he was appointed lecturer in the same faculty he use to study.
In 1895 Rexhep Voka returned in his birthplace and gained a great reputation there. He was appointed the mufti of the Manastir's vilajet in 1903. As many other patriots Rexhep Voka supported the new Turks of at the beginning. He participated in the gathering of Bucharest side by side Ismail Qemalit in Ferizajt gathering in 1907, and in the congress of Dibra.
In one of his articles issued in "Shqypoja e Shqiperise" of 1910 he mentioned his mistake regarding the alphabet case. Rexhep Voka saw the alphabet dilemma from the point of view of New Turks. He perceived it as something related to religion. Therefore he favoured the option of using the Arabic alphabet for writing Albanian. According to Hasan Kaleshi in March 1910 Rexhep Xhudi the son of Nureding Voka presented a treatment to the leadership of Janina in which he recommended the Arabic alphabet for the writing of Albanian language. 19 having the same opinion Rexhep Voka after completing the Albanian alphabet composed of Arabic letters wrote a primer that was titled "Abbeja skip". The primer was published in Istanbul on 1990 and was composed of 20 pages. In 1911 Rexhep Voka also published "Gramatiken elementare Shqipe" ("The elementary Albanian grammar") together with a religious textbook "Ilmihali I hollesishem Shqip", in which Islamic principles were treated.
For understanding the personality and stand of Rexhep Voka the content of his work "Mendime" ("Thoughts") published in Istanbul in 1910 20 should be first taken into consideration. The work was written according to the Tetova dialect. Of special interest are the parts such as "Disa fjale vellezerve shqiptare" ("Some words for the Albanian brothers"), "Din e Dije" - a poetry ("Religion and knowledge"), "Mesime" ("Teachings") etc. In this work Rexhep Voka expressed the view that "The school must be opened and if we don't have the possibilities for building big schools we will gather the children and teach them in huts instead", "It is a shame for us Albanians to remain in a position lower than other nations". Similar views are common and numerous in this work.
In the page of Albanian press of Kosova and Macedonia its difficult to find any other figure more discussed that that of R. N. Voka. To his patriotic and Islamic Albanian education activities an entire chapter is dedicated in the voluminous book ""Mesuesit per kombin Shqiptar" ("The Albanian teachers").
Rexhep Voka was very much tied to religion and motherland in the same time. He called all Albanians "to write in order to give knowledge and education to the nation". He was t not a dogmatic and evaluated critically and objectively his stand. It was this objectivity which made him renounce his first opinions. He preferred to give away all the privileges he had and to die poor but faithful to the religious and national ideals.
From a critical point of view the work of Rexhep Voka had a positive influence in the spreading of Albanian education, Islamic culture and a proper Albanian language study not influenced from Slavism. Rexhep N. Voka died on 1917 (?) in deep miserable conditions in Istanbul. A monument is built in Shipkovica in his remembrance. Many activities and symposiums are organised in which famous personalities of culture and religion have shed light on the pedagogical, philosophical and social views of R. Voka. The work of R. Voka and its language values have been unexposed internationally by the Slavic communist prejudices.
Rexhep Voka had published many articles during his stay in Istanbul but which are not studied yet by researches.
Kadri Luftullah Prishtina
A national unity warrior
Kadri Luftullah Prishtina 21 played an important and multi-dimensional role in the first quarter of the 20th century Albanian history. K. L. Prishtina who was renowed for his struggle for national unity has finished the theological studies in Istanbul. He continued his further advance studies together with the faculty of Justice in the university of Istanbul.
His ideas as a leader were pro an Ethnic and democratic Albania.
He leaded the comity for national protection of Kosova (Komiteti per Mbrojtjen Kombetare te Kosoves), represented Kosova as a deputy in the first Albanian parliament (1921) and was appointed the Minister of Justice in the Albanian Cabinet (1921) which was leaded by Hasan Prishtina22. As a jurist Kadri Luftullah Prishtina was distinguished for his strong principles. As a publicist and theologian he directed the magazine "Udha e s'vertetes" ("The path of truth") in which he expressed his political, social, philosophical and social ideas. 23
He elaborated further this concepts in the magazine "Bashkimi I Kombit" in which he mentioned that "it is the responsibility to advise our religious brothers, teach them the basic religious principles, save them from the total destruction, elevate their social relationship, give birth to the respect for the religious intellectuals and give an mentally advancement to all nation till we gain a stronger acquisition in the field of philosophy, sociology and politics."24.
Kadri Luftullah Prishtina tried to create a positive social opinion regarding religion, seeing it as a unity element, as doctrine which in no way obstructs the scientific advancement and as a power "Which safeguards the order and discipline among people"25
By the mean of articles he published and forums he directed or participated he touched actual points related to the development of education. It should be noted that he treated those points from a social - political standpoint. In 1920 he requested that the elementary school should be obligated and the half secondary school are not obligated but free of charge. To this project the building of hostels for remote area students was added. As far as the administration of different levels is concerned he advocated the opinion that the elementary schools should be administrated by the local administrative councils while the high school together with the universities should be administrated by the state. He placed at the basic of educational work the patriotic education, practical aspect of the knowledge acquire and the independent capabilities of students.
Vildan Faik Dibra
The defender of Albanian alphabet
Reka of Dibra is one birthplace of many important national movement figures. They were brave not only using their guns nut also their pens. One of them was Vildan Faik Dibra from Rimnica of Reka.
Vildani completed his elementary and secondary education in Dibra a place well known for its advance education in Turkish, Persian and Arabic language. Illustrious Albanian personalities such as Haxhi Vehbi Dibra, Said Najdeni (Hoxhe Voka of Dibra), Maliq Tanusha, Abdurrahim Dauti (propagator and teacher of Albanian language) and other have also completed their education in Dibra.
Vildan Faik Dibra continues his further studies in Istanbul and as many other Albanians he finished with excellent results. Because of his high intellectual achievements he was appointed professor in the high medrese of Yskydarit. The Istanbul of that time especially during the first decade of the 20th century was a heaven for many Albanians. Later on Albanian school was opened there, called "Kosova:" and was attended by the children of Albanian refugees. Vildan Faik Dibra was very active with the national movement in the beginning of 20th century and he fully accepted its program. He was a member of "Bashkimi" club in Istanbul and represented in the Congress of Manastir on 1908.26
His pro or con regarding the alphabet of Istanbul in this congress had a great importance. Many of the participants waited for his opinion. Vildan Faik Dibra expressing his views based on the Qur'anic principles stated that: "The religion and Qur'an have nothing to do with the alphabet. There is absolutely no problem using the latin alphabet for learning Albanian language.". Taking into consideration the practical aspect he had the opinion that learning Albanian would be easier by using the Latin alphabet.
He is the author of several literary and philosophical books written in East languages. He is also the author of several monographs in the field of justice (shariah). Vildan Faik Dibra delivered a chain of speeches during 1906 in some Albanian cities as a representative of Istanbul Community. The speeches show clearly his erudition patriotic paths and his professional eloquence. He died in Istanbul in 1925.
Hoxhe Hasan Vogli
"We will protect Albanian language even if it costs our blood"
The first quarter of century's history of education and culture in Tirana carries the name of Hoxhe Hasan Vogli27 among others. The use of Istanbul's alphabet, the opening of "Ylli" school in Tirana, the heroic resistance against the patriot's persecution by Shefqet Durgut pasha and Esta Toptani, the establishment of the orphanage in Tirana together with many beneficent actions made the name Hasan Vogli very honourable among people.
Hasan Vogli comes from a Tirana family with strong patriotic traditions. He finished his elementary school in Tirana while he completed the secondary one in pedagogical school ""Darul-muslim" of Shkodra. According to some dates he continued his further education in Istanbul where he became well versed in theology. Since the beginning he engaged himself in the patriotic movement. As a guiding principle of his social activity sewed his saying: "I'm Albanian, talk Albanian and will write my language even with blood if necessary", 28
He never derived from this principle. Hasan Vogli worked as an elementary school teacher in an Albanian school in Tirana directed by Filip Hashiku. He started to work since 1901. Ate the same time he served as a teacher in other Turkish schools. He continued his work as a teacher in several Tirana schools even after the independence till he died. In the age of 5829 he taught theological and general knowledge subjects.
In 1910 and later on with the coming of the rebels of Esat Toptani in Elbasan - as Ibrahim Dalliu describes then in his book "Patriotizma ne Tirane" - he (Vogli) was persecuted in the most inhuman ways until he become invalid.
Hasan Vogli was one of those people with a strong character who don't yield to the violence and injustice. He was the first to go to the mosque and the last to get out of it. Hasan Vogli was one of the pioneers who accepted the verdicts of Lushjna's Congress and supported the followers of the government originated from the Congress. He didn’t any work but his words were very influential in mosque and in teaching enviorments alike. 30
Hasan Vogli was the living example of a devoted Muslim. He would engage himself in every activity related to helping the poor. Many orphan girls had a joyful marriage thanks to his help. After his death the olive-grove owned to him passed by his will to the orphans.
Haxhi Ali Elbasani
The representative of national unity
The life and activity of Haxhi Ali Elbasanit extends from his last half of the 19th century till the first quarter of the 20th. He experienced painful happening such as: battles, the country's cutting up, emigrations, the miserable condition of the people, the disunion coming as a result of Slavic and Greek propaganda etc.
Having a great theological potential, a result of his study in the University of Istanbul and inspired by national ideals he gained a considerable popularity among people and was elected as a deputy and later as a member of senate. His trip to perform Haj (pilgrimage) enriched his worldview with noble feelings.
Haxhi Ali Elbasani was especially distinguished as a publicist, social activist and patriot. During his stay in Turkey he directed the newspaper "Zemra" ("Yrek") which was published in Albanian (using Arab alphabet) and in Turkish. This newspaper became a tribune of ideas related to the need for organisation in Albania. Haxhi Ali Elbasani was the headmaster of the club "Bashkimi" ("Unity") which issued its newspaper "Fjala e drjete".
The Haxhi Ali Elbasani's idea regarding education, understanding between the believers of different and others are part of the renaissance activist's ideas. He propagated the tolerance in opinions in the basis of which he preached the co-operation of Muslims with Christians: "Muslims should become closer to Christians because this strengths the Albanian nation."
In 1913 -1914 he directed "Komitetin e zgjimit dhe the Beses Shqiptare" ("The Committee of Albanian awakening and faith" with headquarters in Elbasan.
Because of his stand, education as a muderis and his experience joined when serving in the legislative organs in Turkey, Ali Elbasani gained a great reputation not only in Elbasan but even in the entire Middle Albania zone. He died in 1928.
The first headmaster of Tirana medrese
In the 20th the establishment of a religious contemporary school was seen as necessary. The initiators and supporters of the establishment of this school were illustrious political personalities of that time. With the fall of Khalifat the opening of such school was regarded as an emergency matter, the group of the main intellectuals was represented by figures such as: Vehbi Dibra, senator Sali Vuciterni, Qamil Bala31, Mehdi Frashri, Ferit Vokopola and others.
The will be medrese aimed to educate clerics with contemporary theological, philosophical and scientific knowledge.
Q. Bala was appointed as its headmaster. Qamil Bala born in Bala of Gjilan (KOSOVA) and educated in Istanbul had a long pedagogical experience as a teacher in the gymnasiums of Janina, Salanika and Manastir. He had also been the headmaster of Jerusalem' gymnasium and education director in Damask and Elbasan. Participated in the Educational Congress of 1922 and was also a member of the "Mbrojtja Kombetare e Kosoves" ("National Protection of Kosova") Comity.
He was appointed as the headmaster of Tirana Medrese on 1 March 1924. Qamil Bala presented the syllabus of the medrese which contained the following subjects: Qur'an, Fikh, Arabic language, Albanian language, French language, Albanian history, Geography, Science, Math and Geometry, Hygiene and other subjects (Drawing, physical education and music).
The medrese was in the same level as far as the syllable was concerned with other contemporary gymnasiums. Many brave clerics, researches, writers and even academicians were graduated from this medrese.
Mehmet Akif Ersoj
The Albanian-Turkish personality
One of the Albanians who had made a name for themselves in the literary world of Osmanli empire is Mehmet Akif Ersoj32. He came from an honourable family (his father was a muderis) of Peja.
Mehmet A. Ersoj began to write in a early age although the fact that he studied veterinary. He graduated in 1836 although many material difficulties he faced (taking into consideration the death of his father).
Since in the secondary school he was influenced in Arabic (the language of Qur'an) and in Persian (the language of Osmanli literature). Later on he learned French in Paris, it should be noticed the fact that Mehmet Akif had an excellent knowledge of Albanian which was his native language…""
"After 1912, for around four years he worked as a veterinarian in Rumeli an especially in Albania (Two years in Kosova) including here his hometown Peja, which he visited aiming to meet his family"33
he was rewarded as a poet. In 1895 his famous poetry “Kur’an-a Hitap” was published later. One year later he started issuing the magazine “Resimli Gazete”. In 1908 the “Sirati-I-Mustafakim” magazine was published. Mehmet Akif was the chief editor of this magazine and published some of its poetries there by the pen name “Sa’di”.
One of the most important works of M. Esroj is that titled “Asimi”, which was published in a period of 1919-1924.
Other important works are “Bir Gece”, “Bir Aziz”, “Ne Eser”, “Ne de Semer”, “Dervic Ahmet”, “Sa’di Pasa Imami”, etc.
Mehmet Akifi reflected in his poems the tragic events of the time. He has written elegiac poems related to Balkan’s War 1912-1913 and to the First World War 1914-1918. Mehmet Akif fought not only through his writings but also through his speeches in the mosques in Kastamonu and other vilajets."34
Mehmet Akif is also known as the author of Turkish national anthem, winning over 700 other poets. For this initiative he was encouraged by some of his friends and the Minister of Education Hadullah Suphiu. The national anthem was officially accepted in 1 March 1921, and was made known everywhere through the newspapers, postcards etc.
Mehmet Akif was an outstanding personality of culture and education in Turkey. He has also exercised the post of the minister for a period of time. "He was a patriot and a democrat who hated the imperial despotism together with western imperialism, the so-called "civilisation". M. Akif was a pan-Islamist. He hated and criticised the pan-turanists or pan-Turks ... the Ittlat-Terakki party which came to power with the revolution of 1908"35 The private Turkish-Albanian gymnasium nowadays in Tirana is Named after him.
Haxhi Vehbi Dibra (Agolli)
The best commentator of Qur'an in Albanian language
Haxhi Vehbi Agolli (Dibra) was born in Dibra e madhe on 12/03/1867. After completing his education in theology, being specialised in the field of Islamic philosophy, logic, Jurisprudence etc. He was appointed the mufti of Dibra and exercised this position till 1912. In 1909 he participated in congress of Dibra and was elected its chairman. In 1912 he was send as a delegate in the historical gathering of Vlora, was elected the head of Senate (Consultative organ helping the Temporary Vlora's government) and substituted Isamil Qemal when he was not present.
He had a good knowledge of Arabic and Turkish languages. Haxhi Vehbi Dibra was appointed the mufti of Albania after the independence. He remained in that position till 1929. During his time as a mufti the Islamic Congregation solved a big number of problems. It systematised and evidenced the Waqfs properties with the proper documentation, normalised the religious services in the cities and villages, completed several centralised reforms especially in the aspect of sanctuaries and clerics dependence etc. Haxhi Dibra was the initiator of the idea of status formulation.
The congregation which was in a juridical way recognised started the publication of weekly magazine "Zani i Nalte. It influenced the establishment of "Medrese se Nalte" in Tirana. In this way the authority of the Islamic Congregation become popular something reflected in its establishment of connections with many Islamic countries. In 1935 H. V. Dibra goes for the second time in Mecca in order to perform the pilgrimage and was affirmed as an Islamic Scholar of that time.
H. V. Dibra was one of the most excellent commentators of Qur'an in Albanian language. His speeches delivered in the mosques are published in the magazine "Zani i Nalte". In 1993 the complete version is published in USA from imam Vehbi Ismaili entitled "C'urdheron Kur'ani?" ("What does Qur'an order?").
All the qualities of an Islamic theologian were personified at V. Dibra who was an imam and haxhi, head mufti, and the head senate, vaiz and commentator of Qur'an. Apart from being for years the chairman of the most distinguished Albanian theologian he invited the people with his progressive ideas to use their intelligence.
In one of his comment of some Qur'anic verses he says:" To choose the best and the proper one and appoint him, then he must think rationally justly...." 36
In the political arena Haxhi Vehbiu was a remarkable propagator who always worked for the nation's advancement. He saw the unity of all Albanians as the only way for further advancement. He said in the National gathering of Vlora in 28 November 1912 that the Christian and Muslims are inseparable Albanian brothers"37 "The enemy of our nation slows his peace if he sees us united for a noble aim." "The advancement of a nation depends on the international security. If the stability is absent the industry, trade and other economical resources cannot advance.
As an Albanian Islamic thinker Haxhi Vehbiu understanded clearly the first difficulties the Islamic Congregation faced. He understood that Islam in Albania should have followed a new way in order to continue its development role. He stressed that: "We cannot justify our ignorance with our old age not even with the lack of scholars in Albania... because we are ordered to study till we die and travel even in the most remote countries in order to search for knowledge." According to Haxhi Vehbi Dibra the Islamic inheritance, which was transmitted to us by our predecessors should continue in order to reach the same level of the modern advancements. "By expanding the limits of knowledge even beyond the most for limits our scholars and theologians ever perceived to be".
Every time to the fate of Albania was endangered the Prophet’s saying, “Love for one’s country is a part of religion” inspired him everytime the fate of the nation was endangered. He died in Tirana in 1937.
SALI NIAZI DEDE
The world leader of the Bektashis
Sali Nazi Dede is one of the most important figures of Albanian Bektashi movement. He leaded the Kryegjyshaten (Bektashi headquarters of Congregation" of Tirana immediately after its establishment by Keshilli Gjyshnor i Shqiperise (Albanian Bektashi Council)
He was educated as a dervish and as a higher cleric in Anadoll in the Teqe of Haxhi Bektashit.
In his birthplace Storje of Kolonja he had completed only the elementary education. He returned for the first time in Albania on 1908 and also for the second time on 1932 - the time he was appointed as the leader of the Bektashi headquarters38.
S. N. Dede successfully directed the Kryegjyshat which gained a big reputation and enriched by the many other distinguished personalities.
S. N. Dede was also renowed for his poetic talent. He fell victim of unknown conditions and died on 1942.
The innovative imam.
Mulla Hasan Masurica39 is the son of a big Kosovar family from Frileva of Kamenices. He finished the elementary education in Gjilan and the secondary education in Hasan Masurica School of Skopie. Since a student in the secondary school he was distinguished for a rich fantasy, a creative imagination, a phenomenal memory and a great application capabilities. He had knowledge of Turkish, Arabic and Persian languages, which enabled him to study the Islamic literature.
During the time he was a student and even later he was found of religious and scientific literature. He red passionately every book related to physics, math or technical sciences. He was especially interested in astronomy. The astronomy together with astrology inspired his fantasy dreams to create. He drew all his ideas in white papers and looked for collaborators.
Apart from performing his prayers and other religious duties he delivered different speeches to his students. Among other things he also mentioned in his speeches since 1900 that man only in a short period of time will be able to reach in other planets, invent different kind of apparatus which will speak and communicate between remote distances, etc.
Hasan Mansurica was gifted with a wonderful inventor's intuition. He started to work with a great zeal for constructing a balloon and asked for the help of blacksmith of the village. He used poplar's planks and wax painted cloth for the construction. In 1899 in the presence of the Zabrica villagers he tested the balloon by putting in it his 12 years old son. The balloon travelled in a distance of four kilometres in a altitude of 50-70 meters. 41
Hasan Mansurica was a real Edison but being limited by that time conditions he was confirmed only in the projection, construction and applications of some apparatus which remained as relics showing the Albanian genius. Hasan Mansurica also built the village's windmill, watermill and coffemill. He later projected a kind of gun which was loaded and emptied several times. For this invention even the Sultan was informed. The activity of Hasan Mansurica was multidimensional. It covered the religious area as an imam and teacher together with his educational efforts for the establishment of Albanian schools. He was the owner of a very reach library.
In 1916 he fought against the Bulgarian invaders who set in fire his house by burning in this way his library together wit one of the calendar describing the position of the planets. He reworked again on the calendar, which was started in 1911 and finished in 1925. His funeral was transformed into a massive gathering.
An entire life dedicated to Islam and national cause
The Albanian Diaspora in Istanbul was very active during the end of the 19th century and in the first decade of 20th century. The renaissance movement there was supported by the numerous students who studied in the schools and faculties of Istanbul universities. Tens of students continued their studies majoring in religion, medical, jurisprudence, military subjects and others as well. During this period Islmail Ndroqi42 followed by his secondary and further education.
After New Turks revolution many graduated students and Albanian intellectuals returned in Albania full of ideals and decided to fight for independence. One of them was Islmail Ndroqi graduated from the high medrese of Istanbul. He returned in Albania in 1908 overwhelmed by the desire to serve for his nation. He worked for five years as a teacher in Tirana medrese.
As an intellectual apart from religious arena he was also active in political life. His students and big number of people learned from him the Albanian language and history. He did this secretly. He engaged himself with the national movement and soon became one of the most active members in the Tirana zone.
In 1912 he supported completely the initiative of Ismail Qemali. Ismail Ndroqi was one of the firsts who hoisted the national flag in Tirana and worked for the realisation of the temporary government's 43 objectives by offering to help Ismail Qemali. All these activities prompted the hostility of Esat Pashe Toptani who order to obstruct Ndroqi's activities became a factor for his transfer as a mufti of Shijak (1913-1914) and later on in Kavaja (1914-1915). Besides his transfer his popularity become so big he was appointed as a mufti of Tirana 1916.
His high level of theological knowledge together with his organisational capabilities showed during 1908-1916 period were important factors for his election as the head of the Tirana Town Hall. During this time as the head of the Town Hall he made efforts for establishment of Albanian schools organised the voluntary battalion of Tirana which was involved in Vlora's war and supported the government of Sulejman Delvines. He was also an opponent of esadist movement. In April of 1920 he requested from the Peace Conference the acknowledgement of Ethnic Albanian leaders. The written request was signed personally by him on the behalf of 30000 participants in the gathering. Consequent with his ideal of an Ethnic
Albania he sent once more telegram to the European governments in 1921, in which he stressed that Albanian people will not recognise any diplomatic verdict that will infringe the Albanian borders 44
As a high Muslim cleric and as a true intellectual he opposed the obscurantism and fanatic believers. In 1928 he withdrew from the political life and was totally concentrated on the religious services. During the 1928-1939 period he held the post of the Durresi mufti. He was distinguished for his high quality sermons. For the people of Middle Albania who considered him as one of its most honourable sons his death was a great lost.
HAFIZ YMER SHEMSIU
Prishtina 1895 - Sazli 1945
Ymer Shemsiu45 the offspring of a intellectual family of hafiz and haji followed his secondary education first in Prishtina and later on in Skopie46 but he didn't complete it because of several important reasons. He studied in an autodidactive way. He became a excellent learner of Arabic, Persian, Turkish, German and Serbian languages. Apart from studying foreign languages he spent a great deal of time with literary and especially philosophical studies by fulfilling in this way the features of a time Muslim intellectual. He was graduated as a hafiz in the presence of the public in xhamija e boshnjakeve (Bosnian mosque)47. Ymer Shemsiu activities are multidimensional. He was an imam, poet, fighter, activist and a teacher. During the First World War he established an Albanian school in Sarli village. This school unfortunately had a short life. It was closed by Bulgarian invaders who chained Hafiz Ymer and imprisonment him in Feriza prison.
Inspired by Islamic worldview which respects and fights for freedom he engaged himself in the service of Comity for liberation of Kosova and became a member of Albanian Muslim political party "Bashkimi", which was led by Ferhat Draga48. Ymer Shemsiu also collaborated with the national liberation fighting units, sang with çifteli (two string instrument) songs which evoked the glorious pas, wrote ilahi (religious songs) and poetry of different metrics where the folkloric verse dominated.
Another aspect of Ymer Shemsiu's activity is the secret organisation of Albanian language teachings. He established the community of Kosova in the mosque of Talimoc where he worked as an imam. During the time he taught secretly the Albanian language and also directed the mejtep. He taught in the school build and sponsored by people themselves from year 1934 till 194149. Hafiz Ymeri expand his pedagogical work beyond the limits described in the syllabus. Apart the writing of oriental languages he taught his students reading and writing the Albanian language together with useful materials about everyday's life.
An important place in his activity has his creativity as a talented rhapsod. His talent was associated with his virtuosity as an excellent dancer. He composed song and danced his songs, using the characteristic Albanian movements. The themes and protagonists of his rhapsodies were the heroes of the nation battles and different heroism, giving in this way a realistic picture of that time. One of his distinguished works is the poem "Nazmi Gafur".
Because his talent he was called by the researches "Bord i Kosoves"50 "Bordi i Kosoves challenged the Serbian police by teaching Albanian language to people and his students, by writing and printing in Albanian. He composed around 30 Albanian ilahies (religious songs", which contain around 1000 verses and transmitted the Islamic message to his students and people. Ymer Shemsiu had a clear stand and a lucid opinion regarding the unification of people, the national and religious disunion." To protect the Islamic faith in that time was to protect Albanian nation. To protect Albanian language was a national heroism. To struggle for freedom to support the Albanian resistance against the denationalisation of Kosova, against the expulsion of Albanians was a patriotic war and a sacrifice for the nation." Ymer Shemsiu was for the ethnic Albania. He was active in the efforts for the realisation of the idea, by raising in this way the Serbian hostility toward him. He died in a painful but graceful way, which is best, described in his words. "Farewell my people. For you i gave what ever i was able to give, my wealth, my family and myself. Better days will come for you."
Brothers don't abandon Drenica
Arif Shala is the son of Dernica in Kosova. He was born in 1909 and since an early age when he was still pupil in the Mulla Rifat's mejtep he was distinguished among the others for his intelligence, braveness and strong character. He memorised Qur'an since in a early age and was outstanding for his beautiful recitation. In 1927 he graduated from Gjakova medrese and followed his studies in the Tirana gymnasium. Apart from other subjects he also taught secretly to his students Albanian language in the Koratice e Eperme village where he worked as an imam. Shocked by the atrocities committed by Serbian gendarmarie against Albanians he sent a protest letter in 1933 to Pjeter, the Serbian king. In 1935 through a pamphlet he invited the people of Kosova to boycott the election. But ht thing, which made him popular, was his call directed to Albanians of Kosova not to shift in Turkey. Thanks to his activity no family from Drenica emigrated in Turkey.
Imam Arif Shala opposed the Italian Fascism. He took part in the liberation of Prishtina and Ferizaj. Arif was a man with strong character, clear Islamic worldview, patriotic devotion and an indescribable love for Kosova. He was a real democrat. Arif couldn't accept the discriminative anti Albanian Slavic politic. He becomes an outlaw and a member of fighting units to fight for freedom of his nation. He was skirmished several times with the UDB patrols. In 1st January he was spotted, surrounded and later on killed in a barbaric way by the Serbian polices. The population of Miron entombed him with great respect although the Serbian polices opposition.
BABA ALI TOMORRI
One of the communist victims
Baba Ali Tomorri was born in Shala of Tepelena at the end of the 19th century. He is one of the new writers and historians of bektashizm. His writing can even be found undersigned by the name Vrafe Ali Prishtina or by the pen name "Turbani". His publishing's are of bektashi religious content. Some are of the most well known are "Bektashite e Shqiperise" ("The Bektashi of Albania") Korca, 1921. "Leteratyra e Bektashizmes" ("Bektashi literature") - without date and place of publishing, ""Histori e Bektashizmes" (The Bektashi History) Tirana 1929, “Nefese dhe Gazele Bektashiane” (without date and place of publishing).
He also published much other writings and specific poetry in the press of that time. One of his poetry “Flamurit te Shqiperise” is dedicated to the Albanian flag.
B. Ali Tomorri was one of the main organises of three Bektashi Congress. The first Bektashi Congress was held in Prishtina where the first office of his teqe was located (1922). The Second Congress was organised in Gjirokastra (1926) and the third one in Faram of Korca (1929).
In 1921 B. Ali Tomorri issued the “Reforma” informational notebook. In 1947 was sentenced to death by the communist court and was executed accused of collaborating with English.
MA’RUF AL – ARNAUTI
The famous Arab writer with Albanian origin (1892 – 1948)
One century and a half before, the Albanian family of Hasan Age Meulan Jysufi emigrated in Beirut, which was in that time a part of Osmanly Empire. Hasan Aga gained the trust of the authorities with his braveness and fidelity and was appointed as the military companion of the head Town hall, Halil Pasha.
The people of Beirut nicknamed Hasan Al-arnauti. This nickname was used even by his son ahmeti and by his grandson Maërufi who was educated in a devoted Muslims environment. In his formation as a Muslim he was very much influenced by his mother who was a good knower of the history and the life of the Prophet a.s.
Maërufi completed his primary education in a private school in Beirut. These kinds of schools were very common in that area in the beginning of 20th century. The West European powers had shown great deal of interest about the area and aimed the penetration of their culture there. It should be noted that the European culture was the danger of Arabisation .
The good luck of Maeruf was that his teacher was Hasan El-Habalin a illustrious pedagogue well known for his religious knowledge, his sympathy for Osmanly Khalifat and his pedagogical finesse. Hasan El-Habalin was at the same time the director of “Ebabil” newspaper had a great impact in the character and the educational background of Maëruf. Maeruf memorized parts of Qur’an and gained a great theological knowledge.
Being a knowledge lover and having a very good knowledge of Arabic, Turkish and French he enrolled as a student in the Islamic Faculty of Osmanly, which was director by famous theolog Ahmed-Ab-Bas El-Ezmeri. The lecturers of this faculty were distinguished for their Islamic, freedom-loving views. One of the lecturers who were especially respected by the students was Jusuf Harfushi kecturer of French language. Through his comments on the French and East Islamic classics he inspired his students with love for religion, truth, the Arab’s war for independence and encouraged them to study the revolutions in the Western World.
Maërufi was soon distinguished among his faculty’s friends for his intelligence, talent and behavior. He was an excellent orator.
Since 16 years old he made his first debut of his first poetries in front of a Turkish –Arab intellectuals audience and soon became well knwn. This event was a starting point for his career as a poet, writer publicist, and translator.
The newspaper and magazine considered a honor the publication of his writings
Maëruf Arnauti was a perfect honour of Arabic, Turkish and French written languages. But had did he know Albanian language? Unfortunately truth remains unknown. What we know is that he was grand of his Albanian origin and preserved the meaningful surname Arnauti-Albanian.
Maëruf Arnauti became famous mainly in Syria and Lebanon. His writings were advertised in the book showcases of Damascus and Beirut.
With the beginning of World War I in 1914 Maëruf was recruited nizamë. He was sent in the Bosfor coast. Going often in Istanbul was introduced to intellectual Turkish circles and poets.
One of the things he took from home was the Holy Qur’an advice from his mother.
Being aware of the fact that Osmanli Empire was loosing the war Maëruf understood Turkey wouldn’t be anymore the center of Islamic Khaliphat. He decided to go back in Arab land where the secret movement for revolt with the center in Hijaz had already started. Without waiting the end of the war Maeruf left the army in 1916. Turkey was in a deep chaos. “I left war sad of its consequences – wrote Maeruf - I predicted the fall of Khaliphat with its loose. It was a very painful thing because I loved the Khaliphat as much…”.
After many post-war roaming Maeruf arrived in Zheleh tired and desperate. His desperation becomes ever greater when he didn’t find his father alive. Ahmet Al-Arnauti had passed away while his son Maeruf was in the front.
Maeruf Al-Aranuti started his independent life. He joined the army of Sherif Hysejn who in 1918 entered victorious in Damask.
After the war Maeruf entirely concentrated on his intellectual work especially on the press. In the collaboration with the remarked Syrian publicist Kasim Uthman he published the magazine “El Istinal el-Arabi” and later on “Ej-lim al-arabi”. He worked especially with “Felah Arab” magazine being the director of it till he died.
Maeruf Arnauti, “the Albanian, with his numerous publications was part of the famous writers and poets of Middle and Near East belonging to the first half of 20th century.
He was one of these Albanians distinguished in the fields of science, culture, theology and art. Well known remain the name of many Albanians such as Architect Kasemi, Alexander Moisiu, Mehmet Ali Pashe Misiri (the founder of Egyptology, Qyprily generations, Karl Gega (the builder of Semering railway) and others. In our time the name of Maeruf Arnauti is known in the entire east. He is considered a great poet, writer and publicist.
The spiritual, political and military leader
The name of Mulla Idriz Gjilani appears in the history of the first half f 20th century. The researcher Muhamed Piraku describes him as “a consequent religious patriot orator, master of writing, hardworking and faithful. He was an illuminist religious preacher and teacher. Mulla Idriz Gjilani was also well known as an ideologue and freedom fighter. He fought through his speeches, and gun becoming in this way a legend for his invincibility as Basha Muji”52
Mulla Idriz Gjilani was born on 4 July 1901 in Velekice, a village in the periphery of Gjilan. 53 He completed his elementary education in mejtep of Cermica in 1911 while his secondary one in “Atik” medrese, Gjilan. He was graduated in 1926 after a temporary break. In the age of 2* he become an imam and received the title “Mulla”. He worked also as an imam in Karadak and Hogashe. In 1941 he was elated as a Bashvajiz in the Ulema- mexhlis of educational gathering. In his clerical career he was guided by some Qur’anic and hadith principles which define the values of education, culture and ethics. “Without education- he mentioned – there is no true religion”. “QurTalebet (Students) shouldn’t confirm only to the reading of the Qur’an but they should also study the writing and writing skills. We should guide our students to know Islam not to present it is a static thing.” “There’s no religion without fatherland”. “We should help each other with words, writing, wealth and brotherly love”. “Without a free fatherland the religious practice is impossible”. “How good and understandable is Islam when it is explained in Albanian, the language God have chosen for Albanians.”
During his time as an imam and bashvaiz he was intensively active in the religious education and patriotic fields. The established the Pidic mejtep for the girls and boys of the area and taught illegally Albanian language using the Arabic alphabet. He also introduced the Albanian language subject in “Atike” medrese and made efforts to strengthen the brotherly collaboration of Muslims and Catholic Albanians of Karadak. During the time he was a teacher in three schools in the same time he paid a great deal of attention to his elder students for substitution purposes
In April 1937 he founded illegally in Arllat of Drenica the Progressive Youth organisation of Kosova “Drita”. His humanist and patriotic activities were at the same level with his religious ones. They were present everywhere, anytime and to anyone.
Mulla Idrizi opposed the expulsion of Albanians. He transmitted his opposition in mosques, lodging houses, gatherings and even funerals. According to him “we are responsible before God and nation for the graves of our fathers. We shouldn’t dare to neglect and leave them in the hands of Slavic naçalniks! Not only in Turkey but we will go even in Albania. God had made us responsible in the Qur’an our land and our nation.”
He personally headed the actions for the construction of bridges, streets, and fountain’s mejteps, mosques and maintenance of the graves, which he saw as testifying signs as helping the Albanian unification. His uniform helped him to hide his patriotic activity. Mulla Idriz Gjilani was a renaissance activist in the real sense of the word. During the time he was a bazivit in the “Atik” medrese of Gjilan the number of the students reached 734, 326 out of which were girls. Idriz Gjilanii also organised the moving schools with their own teachers. Only in the Gjilan’s zone 39 moving schools were established. These schools gave birth at the religious feelings and national conciseness among the young generation.
Since April 1941 he was totally concentrated in his patriotic activity. As an imam with the help of God, as a teacher with a power of the words, as a fighter with the power of the gun, as a commander with the soldier’s fidelity he fought against the communist Serbian and Bulgarian genocide aiming the unification of Albanians.
In June 1944 he was the leader of Albanians in the Kika battle, which was won against the communist Serbian army. The activity of Mulla Idriz is heroic. So was even the 1944-1949 period. He was burnt in 25-26 November 1949. His death remained and remainder for his compatriot freedom fighters.
The man who never vanquished from persecutions
The development of Islamic culture, religious publications and the efforts for preserving of the independence are related to the name and the work of Hafiz Ibrahim Dalliu. With the Qur’an on one hand and the gun on the other he has led the Tirana’s volunteers in defending the fatherland from Yugoslavian aggressor.
As a patriotic figure, Hafiz Ibrahim Dalliu has served the general and pedagogical education, in particular. Younger then 18, in an illegal way, he mastered Albanian alphabet and in 1901, together with Filip Ashiku and Hoxha Voglin, served as a teacher in Albanian schools in Tirana.55
In 1908 he opened the girl’s school in Tirana, from where came out the first Muslim women teachers such as Servete Maçi etc. He attended the first National congress for the problems of Education, which was held in Elbasan on September 1909.56
Together with Luigj Gurakuqi and Aleksander Xhuvani, Hafiz Ibrahim Dalliu was among those who formed “Normalja e Elbananit”, which was established with the resolution of the above-mentioned congress.
Luigj Gurakuqi writes that “Normalja e Elbasanit” had in its foundations, the efforts of Hafiz Ibrahim Dalliu, Aleksander Xhuvani, Sotir Peçi (of Luigj Gurakuqi- R. Z.) and many other patriots.57
After the year 1912, Hafiz Ibrahim Dalliu focused on satiric literature. Later on he directed the political newspaper “Dajti”. In the period between 1918 and 1924 he published some satiric works putting his name in the list of the first satiric poets that pared the road of humor in Albanian literature. Some of the works were” Genxhat e Kuqe “, (1918), “Dokrat e Linit” (1920), “Kabineti I Xhafer Ypit” (1922), etc. He also wrote a book of patriotic poetry titled “Kreshniku I atdheut” and the monography “Patriotizma ne Tirane” (1930). He become known as a poet with the elegy dedicated to Avni Rustemi, while became popular for his stoic resistence against the trotures of Albanian’s invaders.
The manliness and heroism of Dalliu is described in the poem “Lahuta e Malesise” where the author Gjergj Fishta writes: “a isht “shqiptar” apo “Osmanli”, u pergjegj me trimeri, jam shqiptar me gjuh e fis.58
Hafiz Ibrahim Dalliu was a strong supporter of democratic movements of 1920-1924. The murder of the illustrious patriot Avni Rustemi saddened him a lot. Still he found the strength to write a song on the honour of this martyr, a song which echoed all over Albanian ethnic lands.” 59
Even later on, both the rebel forces and communist regime persecuted Hafiz Ibrahim Dalliu. He was imprisoned in Manastir, Thesalonik and Tirana. The last time he was accused of publishing the poem “Grenxhat e Kuqe” with the reason of attacking pan-Slavism. But his strong character and the faith in God helped him defending the justice and freedom.
Worth mentioning is his contribution for publication of religious works during 30-s. 15 all together, including here works, translations, most of them original. Of these, the best known is “Tefsiri Shqip I Kur’anit” in two volumes, translated from Arabic. Other books of religious character were: “Udha Muhamedane” (“Muhammedan way”) a 500 pages work published in Tirana in 1936; “E lemja dhe jeta e te madhit Muhamed alejhi selam” (“The birth and the life of the great Muhammed p.b.u.h.”) a 238 pages work in verses published in Tirana 1933; “Mesime teorike dhe praktike te Islamit” (“Theoretical studies of Islamic Belief”) published in Tirana in 1935 etc. He was member of the Albanian Association of Writers and Artists.60
Arrested for religious convictions
Dibra is the place where Haxhi Hafiz Ismet Dibra was born61. Istanbul is the place where he got his graduation, while Tirana the terrain of its activities. “Zani I Nalte” magazine is where he unfolded his knowledge in the fields of Islamic legislature, Islamic philosophy, tefsir (commentary of the Qur’an), hadith, theories etc. The high medrese of Tirana was the institution where he put in practice the Islamic education and his knowledge about teaching methodologies. Dibra was open-minded and was of democratic and patriotic convictions. He knew Arabic, Persian and Turkish language.
By the time he finished his studies he was offered a post in the High Academy of Istanbul. But he preferred staying in his country and so rejected the invitation. Dibra was vice director of the high medrese of Tirana, after Qamil Bala. Following traditions of the first, he built up a body of intellectuals with elements such as Hafiz Ali Korca, Haki Sharofi, Sheh Qazim Hoxha etc.
Though he followed Qur’anic teachings he apply those teachings based on the tolerance between religious and believers. The High Medrese of Tirana, which was directed by I. Dibra, preserved the tradition way of teaching the students, however, the religious teachings were associated with patriotism and national awareness.
Ismet Dibra visited the grave of the Prophet (p.b.u.h) and since then was given the title hafiz.
During 30-s he had a wide intellectual, religious and patriotic activity. Famous were his speeches on “Is there any doubt on the existence of God?” Based on the Qur’anic verses, through this speeches, I. Dibra analysed many thesis and concepts that were continuously being discussed in the excalted circles during those years. These speeches were part of the conflict between Islamic clergy and communist ideas that were being spread throughout Albania. I. Dibra refereed to the works of Descartes, Bergson and Spenser as well.
Later on these speeches were published on the pages of “Zani I Nalte” and in 1993 they were published in Michigan, USA.
The fascist and German invaders offered him many decorations and posts but he rejected them as he rejected the post of the professor in the Istanbul Academy.
The communist regime imprisoned him for 12 years in the age of 60. He was imprisoned for the religious and anti-materialistic convictions. I. Dibra passed the most of his life in the prisons of communist dictatorship. He died in the age of 69.
The lecturer of Gostivar
Abdulhaqim Ismet Dogani (1880-1955) was member of a family from Gostivar. His father was mufti of Gostivar. But A.. Dogani wanted to become a teacher. In Istanbul he took laic education. Throughout his life, Abdulhaqim Ismet Dogani served as a teacher in both, laic and religious schools. Is among the few who combined the laic works with religious ones . In the idaija of Skopie, where Albanians made up the highest number of students, he was assigned as a teacher of Albanian language as a member of Albanian club “Rinia patriotike” (“Shubani Vatan”).
At the beginning, he was against the alphabet of Manastir approbated by 26 associations and clubs in November 1908. But soon he understood its importance and reacted righteously. During that time he published a spelling book with Arabic alphabet, and another one in 1946, in Albanian language but with Arabic alphabet used by Albanians of ex-Yugoslavia in 1946-47 session.62
The rest of his works are written in Turkish language but they have always served the Albanian students in the schools they were studying. The best known works of A. Doganin for laic and religious schools are63 “Saban Yildizi yahot Musavver Osmanli Elifbasi” (“the morning star of the illustrated spelling book of Osman language”), “Yeni Elifba-Nes’h harf Harijha tab’ edlimis ueni imla ilifbasi” (“ New spelling book – Protographical spelling book written in Nes’h letters” , “Muslumanlik” (“islamic religion”), “Arnavutça elifba-Arap harflarija” (“Albanian spelling book – with Arabic alphabet”) “Pedagogji kavaidire mutabik yeni sistem elifba” (“the new system of spelling books according to the pedagogical principles”), “Kurani kerim Derslaerine Baslagiç” (“Introduction to the teaching of the Holy Qur’an”), “Birinxhi Kisim Turkce Dersleri Elifba” (“The first part of the turkish lessons- Spelling book”), “Ikinci kismi Turkce dersleri” (“Second part of Tukish lessons”), “Uçunçu Kismi Turkce Dersleri” (“Third part of Turkish lessons”), “Dorunçu kismi Turkce dersleri” (“Fourth part of Turkish lessons”), “Birinçi kismi din dersleri” (“First part of religious lessons”), “Ikinçi kismi din dersleri” (“Second part of religious lessons”), “Uçunçu kismi din dersleri” (“Third part of religious lessons”), “Doruncu kismi din dersleri” (“Fourth part of religious lessons”), “Birinçi Kismi Dersleri” (“first part of history lessons”), “Abetare” (“Spelling book”) in Albanian language published by “Kultura” Press, Skopie in 1946.
Among the above-mentioned works, of special importance were “The new system of religious lessons according to pedagogical principles” and “Introduction to the teachings of the Holy Qur’an”.
His contribution in the fields of Islamic education was to be appreciated. Abrulhaqim Dogani has written stories for children, some of which still preserve their educational values. He has also published articles on the history of Gostivar and other Albanian territories.
His personality is described in the monograph “Gostivari dhe Abdulhaqim Dogani”. 64
HAFIZ ALI KORÇA
The prosecuted Hoxha
Hafiz Ali Korca65 is one of many scholars who were prosecuted – for their ideas, worldviews and activities - by invaders, fanatics and communist regime. Grown up in Korça in a purely patriotic, religious and cultural environment that shaped his character and raised up his name. Therefore in the year 1893, in his twenties he was interned in Dinop, because while he was travelling by train from Sofia to Istanbul he was caught carrying books in Albanian language, ate that time prohibited. In 1909 for his activity in the school of Korça he was interned in Anadoll. After the Congress of Dibra, his house was destroyed. Later, the cabinet of Telat Pasha condemned him to death, but with mediation he was granted amnesty. In 1924, he was discharged from Keshilli I Larte I Sheriatit66 (High Council of Shari'ah). In 1925, he published in Tirana the pamphlet “Bolshevizma e çkaterrimi I njerezimit” (Communism is the Destruction of Humanity).
Hafiz Ali Korça had an intensive activity in various fields, especially that of culture, religion and politics. He has written a range of original religious and laic works in prose and poetry. Some of his best works are:
“Mevludi”(1900), “303 fjale te imam Aliut” (1910, Korça), “Historia e shenjte dhe te kater halifete” (Published in Tirana in 1913, p.288), “Jusufi me Zelihane” (1923, Elbasan), “Gjylistani” (a translation from Saadiu, 1918), “Shtate endrrat e Shqiperise” (Poetry, 1944, Tirana), “Tefsiri I Kur’anit” (still in manuscript, work of 2000 pages, R.Z., 1920-1924)67, Rubijjati Khajjam (Hajjam, a translation from O. Kajami, 1930 –Republished in 1942 in Tirana).
Of a great importance are the textbooks as well, like: “Abetare Shqip” (1910), “Fe rrefenjesi, morali” (1914), “Gramatika, Syntaksa shqip-arabisht dhe fjalime” (1916).
Hafiz Ali Korça in translating “Gjylistani”, “Rubairet” and “Jusufi me Zelihane” made the great poets like Saadiu and O. Kajami talk in Albanian.
Hafiz Ali Korça was the first teacher in the first Albanian school in Korça. There he collaborated with Pandeli Sotiri, that time director of the school. Hafiz Ali Korça taught there religious subjects for free. After Albanian independence, he was charged with many important positions. He was appointed as counselor and General director of Education Ministry, chief of fatva office in Keshilli I Larte I Sheriatit (High Council of Shari’ah) in Albania, and lecturer in the Islamic high school of Tirana as well.
During his life, Hafiz Ali Korça co-operated with many other important figures as: Kristo Luarasi, Jusuf Turbani Kercova, Pandeli Sotiri, Gjergj Fishta, Luigj Gurakuqi, Mati Logoreci, Sali Nivica, and many more, that played a significant role in Albanian history.
His life is an excellent model of a devoted patriot, who doesn’t separate words from actions, and invites all to collaborate for the sake of mother country and not to forsake it.
ISLAMIC CULTURE’S PERSONALITIES DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY
Director of the magazine “Kultura Islame” (“The Islamic Culture”)
Sadik Bega descends from a dedicated religious family from Gjirokastra. He got his primary education in his hometown. In 1932, he completed his high school with excellent results from Islamic High School of Tirana. Later he pursued his studies in Cairo, where he was equipped with a vast religious culture68. He had a good command of many languages.
Immediately, after his return in the homeland, he started his Islamic cultural activity. In collaboration with Sherif Putra, he founded a magazine called “Kultura Islame”, performing religious, literature, science and art, published by Albanian Muslim Community.69
Being a man of great abilities, he achieved to make this magazine one of the most read organs among Muslims. He invited intellectuals of every field of life who contributed with their writings.
In 1942, translated in Albanian and published three themes, which were held by Professor Aleksander Koire in the “Discussion of Method” by Descart. He titled his book of 100 pages “Tre mesime mbi Decartes”70. These (three themes) are “Bota e pasigurt”, “Komunizmi I xhdukur” and “Gjithesia e gjetur rishtazi”. Through this book, readers got to know Descartes, his though and activity and the role he played in the revolution of science and philosophy in his time.
Sadik Bega has translated from Arabic as well. One of his translations is “Jeta e Muhamedit”, written by the well known Egyptian writer Muhammed HYSEIN Hejqeli (Minister of Education in the Kingdom of Egypt – R.Z.)71
He has done researches in the field of biography with profile to the contributions of Islamic outstanding personalities in Albanian History.72
Sadik Bega died in July 1960.
Representative of Islamic Mysticism
In the Albanian Press of ’20 –’30 are seen the powerful writings of Ferid Vokopola73, one of the well-known figures of that time. He was a politician, economist, theolog, poet, philosopher, essayist, and polyglot.
In November 28th, 1912, Ferid Vokopola signed the document of proclamation of the independence of delegate of Vlora. In 1914, took part in the team of Agriculture Ministry of Durres. In that time he completed the criteria of translation and commentary of the Qur’an. In 1919, he published “Fluturimet e Shpirtit” (The flights of the spirit). He was in charged as secretary in the Congress of Lushnja (21.01.1920). Inspired by this history event he wrote the hymn of the Congress.
In the same year, he published “Symbyllurazi me enderrime” (Blindfolded with dreams). During 1920-1928 he was chosen as deputy of Vlora, whereas during 1928-1939 as deputy of Berat.74 During those years, in collaboration with Sali Vuciterni and others initiated the foundation of Albanian Islamic Community he gave a significant contribution in the opening of Islamic High school of Tirana.
From October 26th, 1927 until May 10th, 1928 he was in charged as Agriculture Minister in the Albanian government.
After the Italian envisions of Albania, he resigned from political life and states administration, and dedicated wholly to religious activity. In that time he founded “Drita Hyjnore” (“The divine life”) religious organization in Tirana. This organization had its own magazine named “Njeriu” (the man”, which was regularly published from July1942 until June 1944. In this magazine he published some of his works. His most distinguished works published in this magazine are his symbolic poetry with philosophical stress. He was connoisseur of Islamic Mystics and this can be seen in almost all of his poetry, especially in his poetry work “Gjemimi I Tomorrit” (“The roar of Tomorri”. His style is decoying and the language is fully of images. Figures used in his poetry have symbolic character, always within the world of Islam.
Communists jailed him. In jail he neither fall in despair nor in pessimism, convinced in his Islamic worldview, he started translating the Qur’an. He continued the translation for ten years. The family of Vokopola in Durres preserves this work. When he came out of the jail, he found himself in totally different environment, for from the liberty of thought and speech, antagonist and enemy of religion. In these circumstances, being a master of oriental languages he was offered the place of collaborator in the institute of History as a translator of documents from Osmanli (Old Turkish). He spent the rest of his life in that Institute.
HAXHI HAFIZ MAHMUT DASHI
Passionate scholar and Unmatched Orator
Science of contemporary education, including pedagogy developed in the high level, are melted in one educative activity of the theolog, the pedagogue and the scholar Haxhi Hafiz Mahmut Dashi from Tirana. These direction of his activity are natural harmonized in his personality.
Born in 1837, in Tirana, Mahmut Dashi inherited the religious and patriotic traditions of his family and predecessors, with the ability to influence in their micro and macro environment through argumentative and chosen words that naturally found the way to hearts and minds of people. He was a good commentator of Qur’an and hadith (traditions). Until 1961, he worked as a lecturer of Islamic Jurisprudence in the Islamic High School of Tirana. In the same year, this institution was closed by the communist regime. He died in the same year.
Haxhi Hafiz Mahmut Dashi gave priority to working to educate the people, underlining that should think and advice in the best manner possible, in a way that even the wolf to be turned and to not occupy ourselves with sheep only.
He had a vast activity, he was not only a lecturer in the Islamic High School of Tirana, but he was also a preacher in the mosque in “Kavaja” street, which is now named after him.
His pedagogic activity had a strong effect to his students, many of whom became well known patriotic, religious, educative and cultural personalities. Here we can mention scholars like Vexhi Buharaja, ‘Hasan Selami, Ejub Faslia, Hakil Repishti, Shaban Demiraj, etc.
The patriotic actively of Mahmut Dashi, is conferred the decoration for “patriotic activity in favour of national culture”.
In this way, Haxhi Hafiz Mahmut Dashi entered in the cultural and educational history of Albania, remaining a model of Albanian culture.
Scholar of Arabic literary works
Osman Muderrizi75 was a professional in the field of research and Islamic religio-literal creation in Arabic. For two decades he worked with insistence, researching, compiling, studying and assessing documents and manuscripts of Albanian authors who wrote their works in Arabic, during the last three centuries. He searched all over Albanian lands, from Shkodra to Konispol and Cameri, from Elbasan and Dibra, Tetova and Vuciterne. He left thousands of pages in manuscripts, many other texts translated and transcripted, provided with introductory studies, scientific approach and glossary of rarely found in Albanian Orientalism. His work is preserved in the archive of Language and Literature Institiut.76
Osman Muderrizi has done specific researches in the virtues and values of Ibrahim Nezim Frakulla, Hasan Zyko Kamberi, Mulla Hysen Doberasi, Mulla Sabri Pata, Mahmud Margelliçi, Muhamed Kuçuku, Ismail Floqi, Tahir Gjakova, Dalip Frashri, Shahin Frashri, Daut Boriçi, Hafiz Ali Riza Ulqinaku etc.
In 1954, O. Muderrizi after a long and intensive work, completed a monograph with theme: “Literatura shqipe me Alfabet Arab” (“Albanian literature in Arabic”). Part of this work were made known to scholars and public through “Buletinit te shkencave shoqerore” (The bulletin of social sciences), in 1950.
In 1959, was published first volume of the book “Historia e letersise Shqipe” (The history of Albanian Literature) where the chapters 12-15 were covered by Osman Muderrizi.
Our critics have appreciated his contribution in “elaborating a concept in the genesis, gist, extension, characteristics of phenomenon. His conclusions are original and evaluated from the contemporary critisc”77.
Osman Muderrizi is known as a publicist, philologist and author of many textbooks. He has been one of scientific collaborators in the Academy of Science in Tirana.
HAFIZ ALI KRAJA
Hafiz Ali Kraja is a representative of Albanian Islamic intellectuals. He took his first lesson (primary education) in his hometown (Shkodra). A great contribution to his intellectual formation gave the pure Islamic traditions of the community, the ‘Islamic High School of the city (Mehmet Pashe Bushatlliu) and the library close to it. Late he pursued his studies for theology, philosophy and Islamic jurisprudence in Cairo, where he got the title “Teologu I Larte” (The high theolog) 79.
He actively participated in the social and political problems of the country. In 1934, in Shkodra, he published the pamphlet “A duhet feja? A e pengon bashkimin kombetar?” (Is religion needed? Is it an obstruction to the harmony of the nation?) 80. This work was published in a time when the communist atheist propaganda was intensifying in some specific intellectual circles. In that time, this material had a great effect. He continued to attack the communism with courage. In 1944, in the big mosque of Shkodra he hold a speech, “Ç’eshte komunizmi dhe pasojat e tij per popullin shqiptar” (“What is communism and its consequences in Albanian people”).
In the presence of many listeners he demonstrated the tragic consequences that will happen to Albania if communist ideology would win.
Hafiz Ali Kraja kept a very close relationship with all politicians of that time. In the occasion of the death of Fishta, he, through an emotive speech, lamented the poet who wrote a dignitary work of the History of Albanian Nation.
In 1943, Italian invaders interned him in Porto Palermo. In 1947, the communist government sentenced him with 20 years of jail, which he passed in Burreli Prison.
Personification of Modesty
Esat Myftia belongs to that group of people who do not separate words from actions and whom duty and responsibility did not separate them from the people, in a time when practicing religion was a great sacrifice.
He was born in Shkodra, in 1911. He completed his primary and secondary education in his hometown. Although he was very young, he was encouraged as an Imam and as teacher of religious teachings as well. In 1944, he was in charged as a director of two newly opened Institutions, Islamic Humanitarian Community81 and Islamic High School. Both of these institutions were initiated founded by group of Muslim intellectuals. Being a man of vast knowledge, master of five foreign languages, expert of Islamic philosophy, intellectual, devoted nationalist and possessing a reach personal library, Esat Myftia neither compromised with occupators nor with communist regime.
In 1945, after the communist regime comes in power in Albania, he together with other scholars was arrested. The authority and the sympathy he enjoyed among people of Shkodra, forced communist security forces to set him free, but the Islamic Humanitarian community had been closed by them.82
During those years, despite continuous prosecutions that communists had done to intellectuals, the Islamic High School of Tirana had survived. In those conditions, Esat Myftia in charged as director of the school, but bot willing to put in practice communist teachings concerned with education, he resign of the pretence of ill health.83
He decided to apply himself totally to theological affair. Esat Myftia was of those few clerics that had remained alive. Therefore, in 1966, he was appointed as chairman of Albanian Islamic Community.84 He remained in the post of chairman for less than a year. During those years, he suffered the lose of his son in army and the starting of the anti-religious movements in Albania.
In these conditions, he secluded himself in the house to spend the rest of the time with his library that was very reach in materials. In this library one could find relics and books of a great value, as well as two astrologic maps of Hasan Tasimi that were made present to his family in Shkodra.
After the government took the library, he worked as a simple cleric of that library, but always under surveillance and left aside as suspicious religious person.
Esat Myftia died in 197585. Despite the opinion of communist, Shkodra’s people buried him with honor and respect.
During the time when Kosova was taken form the motherland Albania, chauvinist Serbs applied two main ways for assimilation of Albanians in those parts; firstly, closing all sources and institutions of knowledge in the mother tongue; secondly, expelling Albanians from their mother lands.
Mulla Rexhepi86, graduated for religious pedagogy, utilizing his knowledge opposed this anti-Albanian policy by illegally teaching in Albanian language. He continued his activity from 1934 until 1944, when courses and schools in Albanian language reopened.
Mulla Rexhepi was appointed as chairman of “Drita” (The light) society. The programme of this society was set in two directions; teaching of Albanian language, collection of oral tradition and folklore; and opposing the emigration of Turkey, that was set as an anti-Albanians strategy of Serbs.
Having good relationship with students of Islamic High School of Shkupi and find support on them and his colleges vitalized his illegal activity.
Even after the Second World War, he continued his patriotic activity, serving his religion and country as well as carrying out his social duty protecting the people from OZN’s attacks. In 1949, adhering to his ideals, he was imprisoned as a collaborator of Rifat Berisha.
Mulla Rexhepi holds an honorable place in the history of Albanian education, as an encouraging and preacher of Albanian language during worse conditions of illegal activity. Therefore, he is considered among those patriotic Muslim scholars and teachers of the mother tongue.
Director of the Magazine “Zani i Nalte” (“The High voice”)
Haki Sharofi87 was born in Dibra e Madhe, but he carried out his activity as a teacher, publicist and translator away from his hometown, in Gjurash of Manastiri (1912), in Peshkopi (1914)-where he opened the first Albanian school, in Turjak and Sllove of Dibra (1916-1920), in Kastriot (1923), in Kruma (1928), in Vlora (1929). After 30-s, he finally established in Tirana where he performed a dense activity as the director of Islamic High School of Tirana, and the director of the magazine “Zani I Nalte”(organ of Albanian Islamic community), during 1930-193928. Haki Sharofi had completed his high school of Elbasan and had pursued his studies for pedagogic education in Pedagogic School “Darul-Mualimine” in Dibra89.
During his activities in the field of Publication, he was distinguished for serious dealings of subject of with religious, social, ethic and philosophic character. He wrote poetry as well. He complied a serie of textbooks titled “Edukate fetare e moral”(“Religious and moral behavior education”), that were used in government school for religious teachings. In these books can be distinguished some requirements of Islamic moral in day to day situations, where take part some fundamental principles of this moral, made easy for all levels and ages of society of that period where laic eduction was limited. These texts have a delicate style and structure suiting that period. Estimating the worth of these texts, the Albanian Islamic Library in Michigan (USA) has newly republished the above mentioned texts.90
Beside the above mentioned works, it is worth to be stated that “Kalendari Musliman” (The Muslim Calendar”) published for several years is one of his work.
During the last years of his life, he collaborated with National Central Archive of Institute of History, contributing in the translation of documents of historic importance that were written in Oriental languages – Arabic, Turkish and Persian. He also left a great deal of translation, like “Tefsiri Shqip”, “Parimet e nalta te Islamit”, “Ajete te Kur’anit”, etc.
The orientalist of great dimensions
Vexhi Buharaja91 was a scholar of great dimensions in the field of Orientalism. There are few Albanian scholars that had a preparation and intuition of Vexhi Buharaja.
He had an excellent command of classic oriental languages, i.e. Arabic, Persian, Osmanic and New Turkish. He had mastered the main languages of the West, i.e. English, German, French and Italian. Later in 1966, when he worked at the Institute of History as a scientific collaborator, he mastered Russian language as wel.92
The education and especially mastering of old oriental languages, he had gained from Islamic High School of Tirana, that he had completed in 1940, were a precious capital that Vexhi Buharaja would offer to his historian collogues, providing them with translations of Osmanic documents, precise scientific interpretations of various documents, scientific reasoning of their content seen in a historic point of view, mastered by him alone.
Equipped with Islamic moral, Vexhi Buharaja in his scientific work was known for realistic, rightful, scientific evaluations with “requested” politizations. Because of these, made him an undesirable scientific collaborator in the Institute of History, even though he was the only one to master ten languages with vast knowledge that had to be honored and with many year of experience in scientific research. Vexhi Buharaja was discharged from his duty, mentioning him of his studies in religious school, accusing him for religious propagation and reminding him the jail and intention in the swamp of Maliq. He returned in his hometown, in Berat, where he retired himself in the loneliness of his individual of ordinary works for surviving.
Vexhi Buharaja was given after colossuses of Persian Classical Poetry, especially after Saadi and Firdeusi, that he translated into Albanian language, thus enriching the Albanian literary collection. He translated into Albanian languages the poetry “Tehajulat” (“the illusions” written in Persian by Naim Frashri. In this translation and in some other original works can be seen his inclination to poetry.93
He gave an invaluable help in the field of Albanian biography, thus opening the path of new science in Albanian collection of works. His work “monumente Turko-Arabe ne Shqiperi” (Turkish-Arabic Monuments in Albania) consist of about 300 Turkish –Arabic inscriptions dated from XV century until XX century.
Being master of classic oriental languages Vexhi Buharaja translated transcripted and commented many works, thus setting up the foundation of a new brunch of our cultural history. As result of his work initialization of Islamic religious sects in Albanian lands, history of institutions of cult and other light-giving data about their formation and works were unfolded in a new vision.
Vexhi Buharaja has left behind a wide range of creation and works that in future have to be subject of study to our historians. The field of study of Vexhi Buharaja is still unexplored. Walking on his footsteps, Albanian Orientalistic has great chances of creating its own original collection.
Recently, the researcher Ahmed Kondo published a monograph dedicated Vexhi Buhara. This monograph, in an attempt to explore the dimensions of this personality, was warmly received.
SALI EFENDI MYFTIA
The founder of Albanian-American Islamic center
In the beginning of 1940, one of the biggest libraries in Shkodra was the library of Myftia family, partly inherited from the descendors of this family with patriotic and religious traditions and partly enriched by the offspring of the family, Sali Efendi Muftia.
Sali was born in Shkodra in 1891, where he took his education as well. In 1927, he was appointed as mufti in Kruja and later on as mufti of Shkodra and Kosova until the communism came in power. Being a man of intelligence and incredible fact and with a cast religious knowledge, he gained the respect of all.
Molded with patriotic feelings, he opposed the regime of fascist invaders. As a result of this regime Italians prosecuted him and he suffered the internation in Gjirokastra, for a long time. Later on he was distinguished for his braveness in the Albanian antifascist resistance, where with weapon in hand and the Qur’an in his armpit became an inspiration of struggle for liberty.
On September 29th, 1944, he emigrated from albania95 and for a long time relatively long he lived the life of an emigrant. He emigrated to Italy, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and America where he spent the rest of his life.
In USA, for 34 years he was dedicated to religious life. With his organizational ability, he made possible the foundation of the Albanian – American Islamic Centre for New York and New Jersey. In 1972, with his initiation and collaboration of imam Isa Hoxha , bought a mosque and open a national religious school, where himself become a teacher. He made possible a joint with Muslims in Canada and was appointed as their spiritual leader.96
Sali Myftia has been an excellent commentator of Qur’an and traditions of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.). For this ability of him, he was known not in Shkodra only, but among Albanian students in Alexandria as well, where he used to present commentaries of the Qur’an in the mosque of the city, weekly. He was an outstanding speaker, especially when he used to present the biography of Prophet (p.b.u.h.), during the season of Mevlud. It is still alive in the memories of the people being present in his speech of year 1935, in occasion of Prophets (p.b.u.h.) birthday.97
On May, 19th, 1978, in the age of 87, the heart of this unforgettable Muslim, devoted patriot, ex-mufti of Shkodra and Kosova, founder of Albanian-American Islamic Center stopped striking. His coffin was covered with Albanian flag and flowers. In New York, where gathered compatriots of the three religions (Muslim, Christian and Orthodox) from the states of America and Canada to pay their last respects their beloved compatriot.
The uncorrupted Democrat
Offspring of a well-known family from Shkodra with patriotic traditions, Hamid Gjylbergaj was distinguished for his activity as an intellectual of strong formation, as an uncorrupted democrat and as an irreversible patriot.
He was born in Shkodra, in 1888. He completed his primary education in his hometown, whereas his secondary education in Shkodra and Manastir. He graduated from the military Academy in Istanbul. He maintained a patriotic, anti-fascist and anti-Communist attitude and an evidence of his attitude is his participation against the movement of Haxhi Qamili and followers of “Sedai Miletit”.
Hamid Gjylbergaj has a reach intellectual activity. He has published 14 volumes of poetry and other writings. Some of his works are: “Flutura nder lule” (1921)“Monumenti I atdheut” (1934), “Drita e se vertetes” (1933), “Cikrrime filozofie” (1934), “Fyelli i barive” (1943), etc.
Hamid Gjylbergaj had a religious formation where the Bektashian Pantheism was predominant. He was a connoisseur of Islamic tasawuf, thus the mysticism that was prevalent in his worldview was mixed with many question marks, where the light of truth predominated with the trinom: the just, the goodness and the beauty. In this span of thought prevailed the greatness of man and acquaintance of truth, relying in the saying of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.): “to know God, one must know his/her own self first”. As told by his contemporaries, the above mentioned issue was subject to almost daily discussion by Hamid Gjylbergaj under the shade of plane tree nearby his house.
Hamid Gjylbergaj was a representative of most advanced thinkers. He was liberal, who through his philosophic poetry transmitted the Islamic philosophy and propagated religion toleration, inherited by Islamic philosophy multi-religions countries. He died in Elbasan in 1979.
BINAZE KACABACI – DAUTI
Binaze Kacabaci – Dauti98 with the pseudonym “Hoxha Hanem” practiced the profession of religious teacher and that of Islamic educator.
Binaze Kacabaci – Dauti is from Leskovik. She was born in Prizren. Being obliged to follow her parents, she lived normal life. She completed her primary education in Edrene, where later on she appointed as a lecturer for five years. Afterwards, she shifted to Gjilan.
In 1920, aged 29, she opened a school for females in house.
During the time when Kosova was under Yugoslav control, all schools in Albanian language were prohibited. Under such circumstances the only institution for the education of Albanians were coursed and Islamic High Schools, where lecturers were Muslims. Of course the Slavic regime didn’t like this intellectuals who were moulded with the feeling of enmity towards Slavs. These Muslims intellectuals endangered the Slavic regime. Moreover many of these intellectuals were members of Kosova’s Comity and had very close relationship with other leaders such as: Ferhat Draga, Hasan Prishtina, Bajran Curri, and etc.99
As many others H. Hanmi suffered the prosecution of Slavic regime. In fact she did not take part in the national movement, but her house becomes a school for Albanian girls, thus contributing with the teachings of Islam for national Unity.
The fearless believer and patriot
During all his lifetime Mulla Ismaili100 was distinguished for his support given progressively forces in the development and emancipation of the society.
He was born in Komoglava of Morava e Eperme. He persuades his studies at Islamic High School of Shkupi (Skopie). Because of Yugoslav Kingdom Army mobilization, he couldn’t complete his studies. He supported and encouraged the anti-fascist war and the national unity. This activity was of these directions:
Firstly, in carrying out with piety his duty as a religious teacher -Despite, the difficulties and pressures he had in the building of the Big Mosque of Ferizaj (Building of minarets), he overcome all these difficulties and managed to built it. Being the chairman of Islamic Council he gave his precious help in protecting Islamic Institutions.
As a modernist he didn't support the fanatics that were against the females education and emancipation. On the contrary, he propagated that "knowledge is a Qur'anic obligatory". Only the knowledge person can understand and fulfil the commandments of Allah xh.xh. He was an opponent of his fanatic fellows that were against practice of sports and arts.
Secondly, he was an active supporter of education and school of Albanian language. He welcomed and aided the initiations for the opening of Albanian school in Komogllava, in 1946. For this, he offered to the lecturers his father's and relatives house. He set an example for other, by sending his sons and nieces to pursue their high school and university.
Thirdly, openly opposed the massive emigration to Turkey, propagating that "here have we born and here we will die. We didn't fight (Osmans) to emigrate in Anadol, but to live in piece in our motherland"102
Lastly, he opposed the disarmament of Albanian population from Serbs, as a result he publicly beaten up, but he never gave up.
VEJSEL XHELADIN GUTA
Religion and country are inseperable
Vejsel Xheladin Guta, from Zaskoci of Ferizaj, is among those Kosova's Muslim scholar of this century, who comprehended the binom; religion – country, as indivisible. Therefor with this in mind they dedicated themselves with talent and sacrifices on its causes.
Vejsel Xheladin Guta completed the primary education in his hometown. In the academic year 1937 -1938, he completed his secondary education from "Mehmet Pasha" Islamic High School where he studied for 12 years. In that school besides other subjects, an important place took subjects of Albanian literary thought in Arabic language, and Albanian language and culture.104
Among his fellow maturing students, he was distinguished by his abilities of mastering oriental languages and for his acquaintained knowledge in Albanian literature, which was prohibited in that time. As a result of his merits he was appointed as a lecturer of the Islamic High School, but he didn't work there. He shifted in Vinoc, where the resistance against anti-national Slav policy was on its apogees. In Vinoc, he opened a school that in a short period of time become famous and the number of students grew day by day. Later on he was dedicated to poetry.
In his school, besides religious subjects, other subjects as math, astronomy, geography and history were taught as well. Although illegal, the school became a center of spreading the knowledge in Albanian language. During 1941-1945, the school of Vejsel Guta became a religio-national school, where students acquaintained knowledge of Albanian History and Albanian language and literature too.
Vejsel Guta was naturally born poet. He could easily put his thoughts in a poetry verse. In making of his poetry, he applied the technique of Persian poets, the language and the works of which he knew very well. The religious poetry that he wrote looked like Persian ones, but in their content he dealt with social, political and more problems. The most famous of his poetry are: “Cohu prej gjumit more vlla”, “mos e le udhen, o insan”, “Fjalim shqipe e thon”, “Ej ju te par ehli vatan”, etc.
As lecturer, he could synchronize very well the religious education with the patriotic one, legal work with that illegal. Many of religious texts and poetry, where the spirit of patriotism was present, were taught to students, thus challenging the prosecution of Serb Police. Many of his poetry (Ilahi) became as a subject for the students of “Alauddin” Islamic High school of Prishtina. Serb police who prosecuted him discovered this.
Vejsel Xheladin Guta, known from Kosova people as “Mulla Vejsel” or “Mulla Vejsel Vionoci” left behind vast poetry creations. He was a famous Muslim teacher who gained authority and respect for his activity as imam patriot.
MULLA ZEKE BERDYNA
A life for Islam, education in Albanian language and for the Albanian nation.
Mulla Zeke Berdyna was born in 1918 in the village of Novosella in Peja. He found himself in an uneducated environment, in a place where no school could be found and where people were illiterate.
In 1926, he joined the Islamic school of Peja, to continue later on with his lecturer Fahri Efendi, known for his vast knowledge. Thus, Zeneli (Mulla Zeneli) was prepared and become able to teach others. It was a time when Albanian laic schools were closed by occupator as part of their plan to assimilate Albanians. He had other lecturers from the field of Albanian language and literature, history, math, geography.
In 1938, Mulla Zeka opened a school in the village of Rodavc, where beside the subjects of religion, mother tongue, and social sciences with national character, he taught his students the subject of psychology as well.105
From 1941 until 1944, Mulla Zeka joined the unit of volunteer against Cetnik fighting units, at the front of Rozhaja and Novi pazari. In 1943, in massacre of Bihari, being in the head of voluntary units, he was wounded badly.
In 1948 he was imprisoned in ex-Yugoslavia jail of “Bella Kuca” – Nish, for four years, and from 1952-1960 in jail of Goli Otok. He was imprisoned in the false pretence as being a pro-Stalinian. There, Mulla Zeka resisted the most brutal tortures with honor. Once, remembering the time he spent in Goli Otek jail, he said: “the most difficult task for me was to carry stones…! If it was to built something. I could do it willingly…, but we was forced to carry those stones from one side to another, back and forth.”
After he was released from jail, he worked an imam in the village of Novesella. Besides teaching of religion106, he took an active part in solving the conflicts between people. As a result of this in Podgor, he was called as the pioneer of reconciliation. Mulla Zeka solved those problems that could not be solved by law. On January 12th, 1987, he died in bondage. In his funeral came almost all Kosova.
HASAN EFENDI NAHI
The scholar, the sweat – tongued lecturer
Hasan Efendi Nahi107 is an Islamic personality with a good reputation and work, that lives in his successor, whom he carefully prepared them to serve in their mother tongue. As a patriot and alim (scholar), he has a good name in Prizren, Ferizaj, Gjakove, Prishtine and all Kosova.
He was born on March 12th, 1905, in an intellectual family with religious traditions from Gjakova. He completed his primary and secondary education in his hometown. In 1930, he pursued his studies in “Al-Azhar” university in Egypt.108
Graduated from this university, he was appointed as a mobile preacher and as lecturer at the Islamic School of Ferizaj. He continues his profession as lecturer with passion. In 1943, as result of his work, he was appointed director of “Mehmet Pasha” Islamic high school in Prizren. Ate the same time he was chief-mufti.109 After the school was closed, in 1948 until 1958 he worked as imam in Gjakova.
He openly struggled for Albanian schools and presentation of the Islamic High school from destruction, after his closure. In 1956, when the closing of the school in Gjakova was decided, he openly said to the rulers: “Better burn Gjakova entirely that closing the school.” In September 1958, he was appointed as a lecturer in “Alauddin” Islamic high school of Prishtina. For two decades he served there giving a precocious help in mouldig the new generation of teacher of Islamic education in Albanian language.110
In 1978, he retired, but Hasan Efendiu never stooped working for religion and nation. After a work of ten years he presented Albanian readers, the translation of the Holy Qur’an, welcomed work (in 1988 – R.Z.)
He was an outstanding personality especially among youth that appreciated him for his mission, knowledge and vision.111 Elderly, on the other hand, showed respect for him because he always honored them.
HAXHI RASHID EFENDI OSMANI
Haxhi Rashid Efendi Osmani dedicated his life in the field of Islamic and patriotic education, as teacher, lecturer and Hoxha (imam).
He worked for seven years as a teacher and in the same time, continuing his general studies in one-hand and Islamic studies on the other, which he never separated since his childhood until later on. He spent many years of his life in the administrative sector of the Islamic community and that of Islamic primary and high school of Prishtina.112 In 1964-1968 he was in charge as director of Islamic high school and later on as lecturer. He taught various kinds of subjects, but he was devoted in the field of fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence), field which he was an expert.113
Being a teacher with a good religious and pedagogic formation and with psycho-pedagogic intuition, he was distinguished in the teaching process for his interesting lecturers and clear explanation of the subject. He had natural and sincere relations with his students, helping all of them in particular those in trouble. His ex-students remembered him with respect and can tell many instances where their teacher who treated them as his son. With his example he gave an excellent example to his students, that of attentive attitude towards people and readiness in helping them.
Even after his retirement in 1978, Haxhi Rashid Efendi was welcomed and honored by Islamic center in the Islamic high school of Prishtina. He died in 1991.
MULLA HYSEN LATIFI
The founder of Albanian Islamic Center in Brussels
Mulla Hysen Latifi in an outstanding theolog from Gjilan of Kosova. He successfully completed all stages of Islamic education in his homeland and finally graduated from Cairo University. Mulla Hyseni worked for 18 years as a lecturer in the universities of Saudi Arabia. Always, he has shown anxiousness for the fate of his mangled country, for Kosova, which was longing for. Later on he was transferred as an imam at the Islamic center of Brussels – Belgium and the Albanian Culture Muslim Community was established. Mulla Hyseni works with extraordinary enthusiasm, giving lectures in Albanian language, thus becoming a propagator of our peoples history as well as other nations history, transmitting these knowledge to the believers of all ages.
With patriotic and humanist sentiments, Mulla Hyseni was distinguished for his qualified work with young generation abroad, in the field of religious and patriotic education. As result of his work, a new generation was prepared against the direct of the real danger of assimilation.
Mulla Hyseni, the passionate teacher of Albanian generations, in the field of religion, history and sociology, died in Istanbul on October, 2nd 1993, longing to see Kosova. This nostalgia for Kosova and Tirana, Mulla Hyseni has stated in many instances and taking trips two visit these two parts of the mangled nation.
SHUAJB MUHARREM ARNAUTI
The well - known scholar of Islamic Culture and literature
Shuajb Muharrem Arnauti was born in Damascus in 1928.114 Shuajb, being from a family with Islamic and Albanian culture, learned the foundations of Islam from his father.
Since he was very young, he memorized many parts from the Qur’an. He desire more to know about the secrets to the Holy Book inspired him to learn the Arabic language and its grammar, in the age of 17. For ten years consecutively, Shuajb Efendiu followed the discourses of language held in the mosques and in the schools of Damascus. A good characteristic of these mosques and schools was that students were free to chose to learn whatever was in their interest and nobody had the right to force them in learning what they didn’t like or didn’t suite them.
During that time Shuajb Efendi learned from the best scholars of Arabic language in Damascus. He read famous books like: “Sherh ibni Akil” and “Kafijen” written by Ibni Haxhibi and commented by Mulla Xhabi, “El Mufassal” of Zemalsheri, “Shudhur edh-dheheb” of Ibn Hisham el-Ensari, “Esrar el-Beloga” and “Delail el Ixhaz” by Abdulkader el-Xhurxhami, etc. Among the most famous scholars, he learned Arabic language are: Muhamed Salih el-Ferfur, Arif Ed-Dergji, Sulejman Gavoqi (Albanian), etc.115
After this journey into the depth of Arabic language, language that he excellently mastered, Shuajb Efendi saw as necessity studying Islamic Jurisprudence Science. for that purpose, he read most famous books of that field, especially those of Hanafi Madhhab (sect), like: "Meraki El-Fetah" by Sherenblali, "El-Ihtijar" of Musuli, "El Kitab" of Ebi Hasab El-Kuduri, "Hashiet ibn Abidin" known as "Redd El-Muhtar Ala Ed-dar El-Muhtar", etc.116
Shuajb spent more then seven years studying Usul Al-Fiqh, commentaries of the Qur'an, Mustalah Al-Hadith and books of moral. at that time he was more than 30 years old.
During his studies, what draw his attention and influenced in his scientific formation was the lack of acquaintance of the levels of hadith (traditions) among his lecturers. That was that, the weak (daif) tradition and Mavdu traditions were frequently employed in his lectures, speeches and Islamic literature of that time.
Therefor he decided to be specialized in these sciences and to reexamine and reevaluate the book of Hadith and the Sunnah of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.), in a way that he could make a clarification and create a supporting base for scholars in particular and readers of Islamic literature in general.
In 1955, in Damascus, he started to work as a lecturer of Arabic language and Islamic Moral, but he realized that he had not much free time to study books of traditions.117 Therefore, in 1958 he started a new job in the Islamic library of Damascus. There he presided the sector of critiques and corrections of Islamic literature.
In the Islamic library he worked for 20 years. During that time he researched, identified and corrected more that 70 volumes of books with historic, religious and literal character, like: "Sherh Es-Sunne" of Begavi (16 volumes), "Zadul Mesir" by Ibn Xhevzi (9 volumes), "Revdatu Et-Talibun" of Nevevi (12 volumes), "El-Mubdi fi sherh El-mukni" of Ibn Muflik (10 volumes), Muhedh-dheb el-egani" by Ibn Mendhur (12 volumes), etc.118
As result of rules and regulations particular and in life in Syria in general, that didn't create a working and researching environment, he decided to leave Syria. Therefore, in 1982 he shifted in Aman the capital city of Jordan. There he joined "Err-rrisale" foundation, where he was appointed as chief of culture section. From the time he came in Amman until today, the contribution of Shuajb Efendi given to Islamic sciences and Arabic culture is very precious. There are some to mention:
"Siretu elam en-nubela" of Dhehebi (22 volumes), "El-Avesim ve El-Kavasim" of Ibni El-Veziri (9 volumes), "Zadul Mead" of Ibnu Kajmi (5 volumes), etc.
The quantity of books which he worked himself or with co-authors, reached over 160 volumes containing books of sciences of hadith, fiqh, tafsir, Akaid and other translated ones.
Shuajb Efendi, or otherwise known as Shejh Shuajb, even though born and grown abroad, fluently speaks Albanian language. After 1990 he visited Albania, which he never forgot.
NASRUD – DIN ALBANI
The Greatest Traditionalist (Muhadith) of the century
Nasrud-din Albani is the greatest traditionalist (Muhadith) of the century. He is the most famous personality of Albanian colony of Shams (Syria), which during two centuries forced by specific historical situations migrated from its motherland, with efforts and sacrifices to preserve its identity. Above all, the members of this colony preserved the language, the traditions, and the nostalgia for the motherland, the name and the pride of their fathers.
The natives called them Arnaut or Alban. Inquires of various nature shows up their life and activity. Unfortunately, they still have not found their desired place in our history and publicist, without which the conclusions of Albanian issue in the Whole will be deficient.
Nasrud-din Albani comes of a craftsman family from Shkodra. In 1930 his family and he immigrated to Damascus, Syria. He did his primary education at "Isaf Hajrie" government school, where he learned Arabic language.119
Nasrud-din was not satisfied with that only, but he pursued his studies in the old school of Damascus, where the most famous scholars of that time hold their lectures. He got to know Arabic language and literature through books like: "Sherh Ibin Akil", "El-mufas-sal" of Zemasheri, "Shudhur Edh-dheheb" of Ibn Hisham, etc.
After having mastered the Arabic language, he started to become known by all, for powerful interpretation and abilities in argumenting language and literature values. All these enabled him to be oriented in the study of Islamic Jurisprudence, the first lectures of which he took from the well-known Prof. Seid El-Burhani. Before that he had read the most famous authors of Hanafi Madhhab (sect) like: "Merakil Felah" of Sherniblahi, "El Kitab" of Ibn Hasanel-Kud-duri, etc. during that time he got to know other sciences like: Usul fiqh (the foundations of fiqh), Tafsir (the commentary of the Qur'an), Mustalahul Hadith (the terminology of hadith), Ahlak (the morals), culture, history etc.
Even though very young he realized the values that Islamic heritage carries and the effect this heritage has in different branches of knowledge and lives of people. This inspired to seriously engage in classifying the real value of traditions of Prophet Muhammad (A.S.). He was graduated in this science, having as lecturer Prof. Ragil Tab-bah. Hence forth, he spent many hours in Ez-zahirijje Library of Damascus, researching and studying the manuscripts found there. He visited other libraries as well, collecting data that made hi a scientific authority in the science of Hadith.120
With the passage of time, the Albanian from Shkodra became known internationally as a scholar of science of Hadith. He gained his fame through his great project (the greatest in the history of hadith of our era) in the classification of prophetic traditions. As a result of his work, he classified the traditions in two vast groups: "Silsilet el-ahadith el-sahiha" - (the chain of True traditions) and "Silsilet ed-daif" - (the chain of weak traditions). This is a study of more than ten volumes and that requires a great amount of time, is still in the center of activity of Nasrudin Albani.
His opus includes of 136 scientific works, 16 of which are critiques, 55 unpublished manuscripts, 29 works published several times, 30 scientific censuring in the science of Hadith and 6 slightly correction of well known books like, El-Ulum, Sahih Muslim, Sahih Buhari, Shemail Muhammedije, etc. Therefore in the Islamic world, he is considered as one of the most productive authors of our century, in the fields of Sciences of Hadith, Arab artistic Literature, history, critiques, sociology, ethics, pedagogy, etc. 121
Thus the erudite scholar of Islamic world, serving as lecturer in the University of Medina (Saudi Arabia) and later in the most famous university of Lebanon, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, etc., was given the title "Muhad-dith Al Asr" (the scholar of the century in the Science of Hadith). 122
Unfortunately, Nasrud-din Albani, even though an Albanian123 and his scientific and literary work is of a 30 years period, is little known in Albania.
During the period of communist regime, where the national interest was put down by partiac interest and where almost everything created abroad and wasn't in the interest of Marxist-Leninist ideology was unwelcome, did not only limit the national culture but rather limited the nation itself. This colossus of Islamic culture belongs to Albania culture too. We hope that not only his work, but even, he himself comes one day among our Albanian intelligence cycles in Albanian Lands.
The colossus of the Islamic Culture and Science
Son of Albanian lands from Kosova, became object of forced emigration by anti-Albanian Serb policy. Young Abdulkader together with his family immigrated to Syria. After having successfully completed all levels of Islamic education, Abdulkader Arnauti continued an intensive religious activity becoming among famous scholars in the science of Hadith in Syria.
He gives lectures in many Islamic Institutions, starting with "Isaf Tullab El Ulum El Islamie", Theological high school in Damascus, Syria. He gives lectures in other schools as well and in the same time carrying out the duty of preacher in the mosque "Mesxhidul Muhammedije".
This pedagogic and scientific activity harmonize working as a lecturer in schools and mosques, as a teacher and redactor and corrector of publishing house in Damascus, in a complete 90 works like:
1. Zadul Mesit - 9 volumes
2. Rreadatul Taibin - 12 volumes
3. Zadul Mead -6 volumes
4. El Kafi - 3 volumes
5. El Furkan bejine evlijaur-rahman ve evlijahush-shejta
6. El Furkan bejine hakki ve batil
and other works.
This outstanding personality, with patriotic feelings although in ill-health conditions (partly paralyzed), has continuous contact with Albanian students, providing them with individual and group lectures. Among his advises is the harmonization of words with deeds. He frequently advises Albanians to preserve their moral, honor and their religious and patriotic ideals.
HAXHI VEHBI SULEJMAN GAVOCI
The passionate scholar and the eloquent speaker
An outstanding Albanian personality that has given a precious helps the Islamic and Albanian culture and national cause in general. Author of about 50 works published in Albanian and Arabic and hundreds of scientific and propagandistic articles, pedagogy and lecturer in various universities.
He was born in Shkodra, on May 17th, 1923. He grew up in a knowledge lover environment with religious and patriotic traditions. He completed his education in Arab lands like, Syria, where he got his graduation in the Sciences of Islamic Jurisprudence.
For seven years he stayed in Cairo where he mastered the Arabic and the English language and set up strong foundations in the field of education and religion.
Vehbi Sulejman Gavoçi holds a special place for his activity in the field of education as an passionated lecturer with wide horizons. He started as a teacher of Girl's school of Halip and later on lecturer in the pedagogic Institute of Riadh in Saudi Arabia and later in Medina University, where later he would return as a researcher.
Haxhi Vehbi replacing his father gave speeches in "Arnauti" mosque, built by his father. For three years he worked there as an imam and Vaiz.
After the year 1974, when the atheist regime refused to give permission to visit the motherland he satisfied his nostalgia by coming near to it. He visited Shkupi (Skopie) and Prishtina, where he gave speeches in Albanian language. Immediately after his returning to Syria, he started writing his books in Albanian language. He published his book titled "Si dhe pse?" ("How and why?"). After his returning from his visit to his compatriots in Belgium, he translated into Albanian language his own work "Parimet e Islamizmit". The last years, after the democratic progression in Albania, he visited many times his homeland. he held lecturers in the mosque of Parruca district, where he made good impression for his deep thoughts and for his eloquent, problematic, argumentative and emotional speeches that were followed by many believers.
During his visit in Albania, Haxhi Vehbi Sulajmani has been very active, giving speeches in schools and Institutions, in front of Journalists and inaugurations of mosques. He has shown not only ability, horizon and vast knowledge, but rather wisdom and modesty, kindness and hospitality. he has given financial assistance and gifts to the orphans and various Institutions, during his visit.
Albanians, including here the students in Syria, find to Vehbi Gavoçi and his sons’ hospitality, kindness and help. Even though old in age, Haxhi Vehbi Sulejman Gavoçi continues his activity in the religious education of people and patriotic education of his compatriots.
In conclusion, Vehbi Sulejman Gavoçi is an outstanding religious and patriotic scholar of Islamic education, eloquent speaker, passionate scholar. he is an example of harmonization of words with action, of scientific thought with application of Islamic teachings. he, with his work and activity reflects with dignity his motherland.
A famous personality of;
religion, education and nation.
Hilmi Maliqi (Sheh Mala), the famous religious, educational and patriotic personality, is a dignity son of Kosova and all Albanian lands. He completed his studies at "Mehmet Pasha" Islamic high school of Prizren, where he learned the basis of Islamic knowledge. Later on he pursued his studies in the field of Islamic thought and in specific in the field of Tasawuf. In the beginning, he worked as imam and later as mufti in Rahovec. His modest house (Alias teqe e Melamive) turned into a youth center for Islamic education. "Melami" means to criticize your own self or selfcriticism.124
Today, teqet (small mosques) of Melamive, as dervish brotherhoods can be found in Suhadoll of Mitrovica, in Prizren and Rahove. To this sect belong Ymer Lufti Paçarizi from Prizren, Sheh Sulejmani from Gjakova, etc., who beside the work with their Teqe, they left manuscripts that give evidence to beneficial work in the field of Albanian writing history in these lands.
Sheh Hilmi Maliqi has written poetry that were sang as ilahi (religious songs) in teqe. His poetic creation, in contrast to prose will attract the attention of researchers and amateurs of Albanian written word. His work "Divani" because its language will become object of study values125 of academic Idriz Ajeti and other scholars and those interested in religio-cultural issues.
This personality has entered the history of education and pedagogic though for his precious help in the field of education, beside that of religion. Sheh Hilmi Maliqi from Rahoveci was distinguished among other teachers in the schools and other institutions of Albanian’s learning.126
Sheh Hilmi Maliqi has written some works in Arabic. His works are of a pedagogic perspective. In the teqe built with contribution of people he worked as a lecturer and clergyman, emphasizing in education.127 In that teqe, where he had opened the school, beside religious subjects he taught math, geography and other subjects.128 He appreciated the work and advised his students to engage in physical work without under evaluating any of its kinds. Just by nature, he evaluated his students according to their real abilities and never maltreated them, thus creating a warm environment and good relationship with them.129
HAFIZ SABRI KOÇI
The hard-worker of Islamic Faith
The Islamic religious activities, of post World War II and later during the years of democratization and revival of Islamic institution, not only in Shkodra (North) rather in all Albania, is tightly connected with a activity of Hafiz Sabri Koçi.
He was born on May 14th, 1921, in Nerene of Librazhd. as a result of his father's death when he was still a child, he and his mother were transferred in Shkodra. He lived in the "Vojo Kushi" district, in the street, which holds the name of martyr lecturer "Shyqyri Haxhia".
Since he was seven year old, he started his studies in the school of city, learning zealously reading of the Qur'an, the texhvid and other base principles of religion. Aged at 16, he started to work as mualim (teacher) in mosques and mejteps of Shkodra. The smart young man, but poor, forced by his economical situation in the family, could not pursue his higher education, but instead worked as imam in Drisht, a village of Shkodra. During the years of war (1939-1943, he carried out the duty of imam in the district of "Dudas" and later in "Rus". Hafiz Sabri Koçi never stopped studying didactly, wisely making use of the resources Shkodra had. Shkodra is known as center of Albanian and Islamic culture and hearth of many well known Islamic scholars (Hoxhallare), influence of whom was present to the new hafiz (Sabri Koçi) who was gaining the attention and the respect of his xhemat.
Always studying, Hafiz Sabri Koçi broaden his knowledge gaining deep understanding of Sarf, Navf, Usul al fiqh, Usul Hadith, Tafsir, Aqaid, Ahlak, etc.
In the formation of Hafiz Sabri Koçi, deep traces have left personalities like Hafiz Muhamed Kastrati, Haxhi Muhamed Bektheshi, Hfz. Sabri Bushati, Sheh Qazim Hoxha, etc.. he took his Ixhazet from Myderiz Muhamed Bekteshi.
He stay in Shkodra was unwelcome by the regime, so he was transferred in Kruja. These, with the request of Kruja's residents, he was appointed Mufti of Kruja. With his request the Muslim Community returned him in Shkodra, but always under surveillance of authorities, which did not, allowed him to work as Imam or to hold speeches. In 1955, he was appointed Mufti of Kavaja where he worked until 1959.
Hafiz Sabri Koçi was known for his zeal in the work, for his speeches, for his abilities to attract the people in general and youth inn particular, to mosque and social gatherings. As result of this he become well known as an outstanding orator in Islamic faith issues. As these were unwelcome by the atheist regime, even disturbed it, because they were in opposite with its atheistic strategy. Therefore they intensified their surveillance upon him, even made the preparations for his isolation arrest.
For personal reasons, with his request he returned in Shkodra. After six months he was appointed imam in the mosque of "Rus" district where he worked until 1964. That year, in the month of Ramadan, after the prayer of tarawih, started the systematic prosecutions by the National Security, on July 4th 1966, when he was going to the mosque to offer the noon prayer, he was arrested. In September of the same year he was sentenced with 23 years and five month of imprisonment. He was released on 22nd October 1986. A notorious practice of monist regime was that only the person in point will suffer but together with him the whole of his family and relatives.
After his release until 1990, even though old in age, he was forced to do hard physical works that were not in accordance with his profession.
With the starting of democratic process the hopes of Muslims revived. On November the 1st, 1990 a group of youth in Shkodra went to his working place and requested him to join them in the opening of "Plumbi" mosque. Their enthusiasm revived the hafiz, accepting their request with devotion. On November 6th, 1990, in the presence of thousands of peoples, with an extraordinary solemnity, starts his duty. The very next day he founded the Muslim community in Shkodra in the head of which was chosen, that was confirmed by a meeting of believers of all parts of Albania, in Tirana, on January 18th, 1991, in the occasion of opening of the first mosque in Tirana. Since then Hafiz Sabri Koçi has been the chairman of the Albanian Muslim Community.
His contribution in the head of Albanian Muslim community is of a great importance. Found in the front of Islamic institution entirely destroyed with personnel and material or Islamic Library in front of those young and elderly generations without elementary knowledge of Islam, he started his work with enthusiasm, gradually solving a chain of complex problems. These problems continue even nowadays, when the people are educated and a big number of intelligence with predisposition of embracing their religion, in a European environment with cultural and religious traditions.
Hafiz Sabri Koçi worked with persistence in making Albania known in the Islamic World and obtaining financial assistance for building religious institutions and mosques and urgent preparation of future religious personnel, etc.
He become, a missioner of recognition of Albania in the whole world. Because of the respect he enjoys, he is chosen Honorary Chairman of Islamic Council for East Europe.
IMAM VEHBI ISMAILI
Personality of Islamic Sciences in all Albanian surroundings
Imam Vehbi Ismaili a personality of Islamic sciences in all Albanian surroundings. in the collection of Islamic library in Albanian, he holds a dignitary place for his persistent work in the fields of Islamic research and publication. He is the author of 30 works, the chairman of Albanian Muslim Community for North America and the imam of Albanian - American Islamic center in Michigan.130
His life is full of religious activities and nostalgia for his motherland, which didn't see for six decades. He was born on November 25th, 1919 in Shkodra, in an intellectual family known for knowledge and respected by benevolent residents of knowledge and culture.
In 1937 he was admitted at the Al Azhar university of Cairo. He was diplomated in the theology in 1945.
The chairman of situation in Albania made impossible his return to Albania. He continued his work that he had began since he was student, translating Albanian novels into Arabic and publishing his translations in two weekly literary magazines: "El-Risaleh" (The message) and "Eth-Thakafeh" (The culture). Beside those he published in some other magazines his own stories from the Islamic history.
The major parts of the novels were published in "El-Medudhehebi" (The Golden Cradle).131
In the end of April, invited by Albanian - American Muslim Society of Detroit he arrived there as their welcomed spiritual leader. beside other organizative duties, he occupied himself with the publication of a religio-cultural magazine titled "Jeta Muslimane Shqiptare". That magazine was published four times a year, with 64 pages in Albanian and English languages, for 8 years until it was stopped by economical factors.
On June 6th, 1951, a center of religious and patriotic activity was opened. On February 23rd, 1963 the new mosque was opened, followed by the opening of Albanian Islamic Center. Nowadays, America has thousands of mosques and a considerable number of Islamic schools and centers.132
As result of his nostalgia for the motherland, Imam Vehbiu has visited Kosova three times, watching it (Albanian) from away. “I imaged that I was seeing my motherland from far, especially when I visited Dibra and Hot… I satisfied a part of my nostalgia” he stated in the “Thirrja Islame” Magazine that circulates in America.133
After 49 years, in November 1998, during the time of democratic process, he comes two times in Albania, leading a delegation. After his visit, he gave some ideas of what to do for the Islamic Faith in Albania.
In the chain of valuable publications, which Imam Vehbiu has done, is the compilation of chosen published works of Albanian personalities. Generously, without prejudices, he published those works, thus stimulating the attention of Albanian intellectuals to the good of Islamic and Albanian culture.
Imam Vehbiu continues to works in the field of Islamic Sciences and giving readers precious works for all thinking levels and in the whole Albanian lands.
The Translator of the Qur’an in Albanian
Sherif Ahmeti, translator of Qur’an in Albanian, lived and worked in Kosova where the pure Albanian language was used. After the first decade of this century, under existing circumstances, in an effort to survive the Serb regime, in many instances, Muslim scholars (Hoxhallare) of various fields of interest united in a big cause. Beside the religious activity, they were dedicated in the field of Albanian language education, as well. In the beginning, the reason of their activity, was the prohibition of teaching in Albanian language from the invaders, and later, the obstacle in practicing religion.
Sherif B. Ahmedi completed his primary and secondary (Medrese) education in Pristina. Having a good command of Albanian language, he worked as lecturer in the villages of Banulle, Gadime and Sllovije, and in the same time, pursuing his studies in the General High school, which he successfully completed134. His educational activity, left good impressions in the students and their parents.
In 1965, he was appointed as lecturer in the “Alauddin” medrese of Pristina. During 1970-1984 he was the director of that school. In 1985, he was appointed Mufti of Pristina. In 1990, aged of 70, he retired. With the opening of Theological Faculty in Pristina, he was engaged in the teaching of the subject of “Aqaid”…135
His precious activity is seen in the field of research and publications of his own. Since 1968, he has been the chief editor of the religious magazine “Buletini” (The bulletin) and as a member of editorial of “Edukata Islame”.
He made a good name in the field of translation, as well. In 1987, after having previously translated the Surah “Yasin”, submitted for publication the translation of Qur’an with commentaries, work which was republished in Tripoli (50 000 copies), in Cairo (30 000 copies) and in Madina (1 million copies).
Sherif Ahmedi if the author of the dignitary work “Komente dhe mendime Islame” of 400 pages, published in Pristina, in 1995. This work consists of compilation of works, some of which were written during the time of censure. It gave a precious aid in the Islamic awareness of Albanian people.
HOXHALLARE (IMAMS) AND LECTURERS, WHO SUFFERED FROM THE SERB IMPRISONMENT
The Madrases in Pristina, Skopje and Tirana became the hearth of breeding lecturers of Albanian language for the schools of country. The Characteristic of education in Albanian lands, where there was a great needs for educational personnel, during the time of fast development of Albanian schools, the organization of students of those schools became necessary. This shows the precious educative influence of medreses in breeding the new personnel, witnessed in the two parts of Albanian land. Their ex-students, having pursued pedagogic courses and faculties, served as devoted scholars of Albanian education and culture, with professional awareness in the process of education of Albanian generations. These scholars are many, but we will mention only some of them.
The simple and great man, Ramadan Govori, or so called Mulla Rama, had a difficult life and various physical and psychological sufferings, but he stand firm with dignity as religious man and patriot, closing his life honorable, gaining the gratitude of his people for his deeds and works. He was born in Hertice of Produjeva, on September 16th, 1908. He studied and worked, continuously, carrying out with dignity his religious duty. Mulla Rama couldn’t stay indifferent when the fate of religion and country were in trail, and could not tolerate those who wanted to ruin both of them. He became a member of Albanian National Democrat Party Committee, where he was the chairman of this party in the district of Llap and Gollak. There he worked tirelessly, until he was dictated and arrested by invaders. He was sentenced to death, but later, he got a commutation of 20 years of imprisonment, which after an amnesty became 15 years of imprisonment. He suffered his condemnation fully, if the Jails of ex-Yugoslavia, thus proofing his believe and patriotism and hospitality against his suffering-fellows.
Mulla Rama, resident of District “Kodra e Trimave”, in Pristina, died on October 23rd, 1993.
H. HAJDAR EF. JASHARI
H. Hajdar Ef. Jashari was born in 1909, in the village Orizare of Kumanova. he completed the primary education in the village of Rezhanova. Later he continued the studies at the medrese of Kumanova, where he took the "Ixhazet" from the famous scholar Nufi Ef. Jusufi.
Later as result of his intensive activity, he was appointed lecturer in the medrese of Kumanova, where he got the title "muderriz". In 1946 as result of his patriotic and democratic viewpoint he was sentenced with 12 years of imprisonment from Sllavo-communists. After 9 year of imprisonment he was released to continue his religious, patriotic and freedom loving mission. His unshakeable attitude was a mole in the eyes of Macedonian regime of that time. He worked as imam in the village of Llojan and later in that of Orizare, where he contributed in the education of new generation with Islamic culture and Albanian traditions. He died in 1991, leaving behind his example that make him unforgettable.
He completed his medrese and pedagogic course in Pirinazi of Prishtina. During the first year of post-war, he was an imam in a mosque. In the beginning of 1946, he became a member of Albanian National Democratic Committee organization of district of Sitnices with the center in Lipjan. In February 1944, he was noticed by the VBE and was imprisoned for four years. After that he worked as teacher of primary schools. from 1953 until 1969 he was the imam of Miradi i Ulet mosque. For 15 years he worked as lecturer in the "Alaudin" medrese in Prishtina.
HAXHI HAFIZ JALUP DUKAGJENI
Haxhi Hafiz Jakup Dukagjeni was born in 1919, in Prizren. He was graduated from the medrese of the city. From 1947 he gave lectures in that medrese and later worked as imam in the mosque of Sinan Pasha. Living with situation of that time he was activated for the national cause, using as a way Albanian education and culture. Being an active member of Albanian National Democratic committee organization, he was arrested and imprisoned. He suffered a long time in the jails of ex-Yugoslavia form 1950 until 1962. Later he started to work as Imam for “Imam Pasha” mosque in Prizren. There he gave educative speeches. He enjoys respect and high prestige.
1. "The character of the Albanian Muslim Congregaion (Jemmaah). Article 5, pg. 4, typed on "Mbrothsija" Press Kristo P. Luarasi-Tirane 1925.
2. M. Ali Kattani "Islam in Albania during the post-Osmanli periode". El-Hilal, pg. 26. Special edt, June 1991.
3. According to some scholars, the Muslim Albanians (Albanian-speakers) compose more that 88% of the entire Albanian population in ethnic territories. For further information see: Dr. Muhamet Pirraku, " Islami-faktor integrues I Njesise etnokulturore te Shqiperise", taken from "Dituria Islame". No.831996.
4. "The notion "Turkish" until the half of XVIII century when Turkish, nationalism arose implied only Turkish speaking people in all the community of Osmanli state part of which were tens of nations with diverse languages and cultures. But for us is important to mention the fact that scientifically it is proven that "the others"-Europeans and catholic church stigmatized by the notion "Turkish" the entire Islamic faith and population" Dr. Muhamed Pirraku "Emri kombetar I Shqipetareve nuk eshte dhune islame". Dituria Islame. No. 81-82 1996
5. Prof.Dr.Skenderaj. "Dokumente Angleze mbi lidhjen Shqiptare…(second book) Istanbul 1993.
6. Z. Cana. "Levizja Kombetare Shqiptare ne Kosove 1908-1912" Prishtina 1979, pg. 82.
7. Taken from the newspaper "Populli". Shkoder 14.4.1915, pg. 4
8. Mark Krasniqi. "Gjurme e gjurmime" Prishtina 1979, pg. 111.
9. Mark Krasniqi. Ibid. members of the fighting units.
10. AMZ. Ministry of Education, pg. 87/1913 –Vertetimet e komisionit hetuesmbi padrejtesite ne Peje dhe viset e tjera te okupuara; The Community of Kosova. – Dhuna dhe rezistenca Shqipetare. See also: Jahya Huka, "Shperngulja e shqipetareve nga Peja e rrethina ne vitet 1912-1924" Prishtina 1997, pg. 25.
11. M. Krasniqi. Ibid.
12. Haj medet per Lug't Bajranit,
N'kame na u cue Save Llazari.
Save Llazari ne kame na u cue.
Don Shqiptaret me I shkombtarizue...
Per pa u ngri, per pa u coptue.
Shqiptare jemi, s'kemi fene me ndrrue.
Haj medet, shpaten n'qafe ja ka nue.
Deri ne toke gjaku I ka shkue.
Mos u cart Hazir, fene duhet me ndrrue!
Hazir Alia trim koka qillue.
Perpjet gishtin e ka cue. Du me u ngri, du me u coptue. Tyben n'Zotin fene s'muj me nrrue.
Na Shqiptare jemi qillue.
Vorret e t'pareve s'mujm m'I turpnue.
13. dr. Branka Bobic, Politika Crne gore u novo oslobogjenim krajevima 1912-1914, pg. 233-242, Belgrade 1984.
14. Beqir Krasniqi. Aksioni famemekeq I Save Batares, taken form mag. "Islamic Knowledge", Prishtina 1995, No. 72. Pg. 25.
15. Leon Freindling,Golgota shqipetare, Vienna 1913, pg. 80. Mbi krimet dhe pesimet e shqiptareve; Pecel's raport 9/6/1913, and the raport of Vukovic 27/3/1913, Mbi mizorite e ne Dukagjin dhe qellimin e fundit te pushtuesve Serbo-malazez. See also Yahja Huka. "Shperngulja e shqiptareve nga Peja e rrethina ne vitet 1912-1924". Prishtina pg. 26.
16. Archive of the republic of Montenegro. 1913. Pp. 103, 701.
17. Archive of the Republic of Montenegro, Ministry of internal affairs 1913, Commission I, page 1. The report Peja-B baptizing.
18. Dr. Muhamet Pirraku, Letter to the second conference of Helsinki. Paris 1990. "Dielli" no. 16. Zagreb.
19. Dituria Islame. Prishtina no. 66, page 23.
20. M. Verli. The newspaper "Drita Islame" Tirana February 1993,no.13.
22. Ibrahim D. Hoxha. "Cameria dhe Janina ne vitet 1912-1922", pages. 103-104.
23. Dr. Muhamet Pirraku. “Ripushtimi Jugosllav I Kosoves" p. 15. Prishtina 1992.
24. Taken from the Archive of Kosova's community 32/21. Report sent to UN in Geneva, February 1922.
25. Died in the year 1990.
35. taken from the file of Central committee for Kosova with residence in Viena, published in KOSOVA newspaper 1930 – 1932 in Kostance, Rumania with the permission of Hasan Prishtina. See also Dr. Hakif Bajrami, The crimes and criminals on the balance of human consciousness. “The knowledge of Islam”, Prishtina number 70, p. 28
36. From the notebook “The people” number 54. 18/31.5.1915 page 1. Also taken from “Çameria and Janian” page 147.
37. E. Durhani. The struggle for sentori. 1999.
38. Ibrahim Dalliu. “The patriotism in Tirana” page 6 (republished under the care of “Tirana” organization 1995.
39. Ali Kraja, “Is the religion needed or is it an obstacle for the national unity “ Skoder 19*4.
40. See for more information on this issue Elira Çela “The non – religious tradition” Tirana 1991 or H. Hasko. “ The reaksion or anti-patriotic role of the religioun” The part of the Party, number 5, p. 45 – 47.
41. The central archive of Republic of Albania 1945, file 259, page 24.
42. The status of RPSH, Tirana 1946 p. 8.
44. The main archive of state, year 1966, file 24, p. 2.
45.The main archive of State 1949, file 133, page 18.
47. Ibid, file 660 p. 24.
48. The main archive of State of Republic of Albania year 1956 files 23, p. 12.
50. The main archive of State. 1966 file 470 p. 2
51. Ibid page 8.
52. Ibid August 1966 file 499 p. 3
55. Ibid. December 1966 file 467 p. 19.
56. Ibid year 1966 file 24 p. 122.
57. Ibid p. 125.
58. Dilaver Sadikaj: “The antireligious movement in 60-ties” Historical studies N.4.1981.
59. The main archive of State ministry of Education and culture year 1967 file 20 p. 34
60. Ibid file 20 p. 24
61. Ibid July
64. PPSH dokumente kryesore vol. 5. Tirana 1974. p 243.
65. The old folks of Shtoji I Ri, Shkoder in their gathering in March 1967 decided: “not to celebrate any religious festival. Not to circumsize the children. Not to practice religious rites on funerals. Not to remind the dead on religious festivals.” From the newspaper “”Bashkimi” – “The Unity” 28 March 1967.
66. Letter of Central Committee of PPSH directed to Party’s communities of districts “on the anti-religious war and its beliefs” PPSH. Main documents. Volume 5 Tirane 1974 p. 244.
67. The main archive of State. The ministry of culture and education, year 1976 file 20 p. 29.
68. The main archive of State. The Ministers Council. February 1967, file no. 12. P. 2.
69. Letter of Central Comity of PPSH directed to the Party’s comity for the districts “On anti-religious war and its beliefs” PPSH. Main documents. Volume 5. Page 245.
70 The main archive of State. Ministers Council. September 1967, file 612 p. 3.
71 Ibid file 20 p.6
72. The main archive of State. The Ministry of Culture and Education. 11 July 1967, file 20 pages 26
74. The archives of the General Council of “Democratic Front of Albania”. Districts report “On the war against backward customs of religion”, September 1969.
75. The main archive of State. The Ministry of Culture and Education. July 1967 file 20, p. 35.
76. The archive of Democratic Front of Albania. October 1969, file “Districts reports on the war against background religious customs”.
78. The main archive of State. Republic of Albania. The Ministry of Education. Year 1969 file 47, p. 1.
80. The archive of Democratic Front of Albania, year 1969 file “Reports concerning the anti-religious war”, p. 26.
81. The main archive of State. The Ministry of Culture and Education. 1969 file 47, p. 2. Letter of Central Comity of PPSH (Labor Party of Albania) directed to the Ministry of Education and Party’s comities in districts.
82. The archive of Central Comity of PPSH, p. 14, year 1969, file 63, p. 12.
83. Dr. Adem Tomo: “The reaction towards the religion and the religious motivation of students and intellectuals”. Published in first volume of “social-pedagogical reflections”, published by a group of authors in Tetova 1996, p. 15-22
86. See for this Hamudeh Abd-ul-ati, Islam on focus, Skopie 1992.
1. The word “Mejtep” derives from arabic verb: Ketebe-Kitabetun- to write. In fact it means – the place where the knowledge of writing is attained (school.
2. the word “Medrese” derives from the Arabic verb – dersun = lesson or derse-learned and it actually means the place where someone studies and attains knowledge; medresetun = school.
3. Avzi Mustafa “The religious schools”. The new moos. Number 39, p. 17.
4. Halim Shpuza, “A contribute to Shkodra history” in “Pedagogical magaizine” Tirana 1974 no. 3, p. 158-167
5. Halim Shpuza. Ibid.
6. Dr. Muhamed Piraku “Hafiz Ymer Bardi of Kosova in the 20th and 30th” from the magazine “Islamic Knowledge” Prishtina 1992 number 42, p. 15-20.
7. Sibian – mejtep means a school for very young children.
8. The Yugoslavian archive. Minis*** Pravde Kralevine Yugoslavije-versko adeljenje p. 129 4814/19
9. Hakif Bajrami “The social-political conditions of Kosova in 1918-1941. Prishtina 1979 (handwriting), p. 605.
10. Dr. Branko Baliq. Mektebi-shkollavanje djece islamske vjeroispovesti 1914 p. 101, 2851.
11. Arkiv SR Crne Gore, Minis?*** posvjete I crekvenik poslava 1916, p. 101, 2851.
12. Arkiv SR Crne Gore, Ministarstvo unutrashnjih djela upravo adelinje 1913, p. 137, 2477.
13. The Yugoslavian archive. Ministarstvo Pravde Kralevine Yugoslavije – versks Odelenje, p. 129 4814/19.
14. Dr. Branko Baliq “Mektebi I shkollovanje:, p. 228.
15. Mejlis of Ulamah = The scholars Council
16. Yzvelshtaj o radu ulema – mexhlisa a Skopja u 1931 god. P. 8.
18. Haki Kasumi, Religious Congregation in Kosova. Prishtina 1988 p. 120.
19. Jemah = Group of believers (Muslims).
20. Academic Jashar Regjepagiç. Skoltsvo u Kosovsky Mitrovici okolimi u periodu 1912-1241
21. Report concerning the work of scholar’s council of Skopie. 1938/39, p. 96.
22. Albania before two centuries … Tirana 1930.
23. Avzi Mustafa “The religious schools”, The new moon, Number 39, p. 17.
24. Muderris – the Arabic term for the teacher, profesor. In Albania it was generally used for the religious-pedagogues who were well prepared.
25. Mutalib Ademi. Ataullah Kurtishi (1874-1946). The new moon (Hena e Re) Skopie 1994, no. 70, p. 30.
26. Ibid p.30.
27. Avzi Mustapfa. “The religious schools”. The new moon number 39, p. 17.
28. Jashar Rexhepagiq. “The development of education and schools of Albanian population in Yugoslavia till the year 1918” Prishtina 1970, p. 29.
29. Interview with Bakiri Aliu, director of “Isa Beu” Medrese in Skopie, Islamic Knowledge” number 80, 1996, p. 29.
30. Avzi Mustafa. “The religious schools”. Magazine “The new moon” Skopie 1992, number 39, p 17.
31. Ibid. the verdict number 2870, date 10.05.1936. See also Shemsi Mehmeti “On the occasion of 60 anniversary of the reformed Medrese “Gazi Isa Beu in Skopie”, Islamic Knowledge number 80, p. 36.
32. Avzi Mustafa “The religious schools and their intention” Magazine “The new moon” Skopie 1992, no. 35, p. 17.
33. The “Atik- Medrese” of Gjilan was situated in the yard of “Atik-mosque” and functioned from the second half of 19th century till 1944. This medrese consisted of a school (Ders-hane) and 12 hostel rooms. During the 1937-1944 period. In 1944 it was closed by the regime of that day as a part of atheistic movement. In this medrese worked several well known teachers such as: Abdurrahim efendi, Mulla Sali Doberçani, Mulla Idriz Hajrullahu, Haki Semarxhaj, Mehmet Shkupjani, Mulla Shaip Hasani, Malo Gamietc. Those who continued their studies in this medrese were enriched with all – round knowledge of themselves, Islam, society and nature. The following subjects composed the medrese’s curriculum: kiraet (reading of Qur’an), akaid (religion), fikh (Islamic Jurispudence), hlak (ethics), Arabic language, Albanian language, tarih (Islamic history) and handwriting. (for more information see Avni Aliu "“edrese -–the hearth of religious an national education” Islamic Knowledge no. 61, p. 8-10.)
34. Glasnik Vis br, 1-3, Sarajevo, 1951.
35. The Yugoslavian arcive, Ministarstva Pravde Krealevine Jugosllavije – versko Odeljenje, p. 157, 10226/29
37.One of the most famous medrese in Albanian lands was The Big Medrese of Gjakov, which started functioning 300 years ago according to same sources. Even today the traditions preserve the names of the most well known muderriz of this scholar such as Jahja Efendia from Shkodra, Vejsel Efendia (who bought the land of medrese and build it around 1750), Efendi, Iljaz Efendi, Fahri Efendia etc37.
38. Hakki Kasumi, “The religious congregations in kosova”, Prishtina, 1998, p. 125.
39. Glasnik Vis br, 1-3 Sarajevo, 1951
40. Sherf Ahmeti “Alauddin” medrese – Taken from magazine “Islamic Ethics” Prishtina 1938, number 37-38, p. 57.
41. GLASNIK VIS br, 11-12, Sarajevo, 1954, 311
42. I. Lamza, A brief explanation on the Prishtina’s medrese activity, taken from magazine”Edukata Islame” (“Islamic Ethics”) Prishtina, 1976, p. 73-74.
43. Working diary of Albanian elementary medrese, second level, 195/52 scholar year. Prishtina 10.4.1952.
44. Qazim Qazimi. “The equal statusof the medrese with other schools” taken from the magazine “Drita e Kur’anit” (“The Light of Qur’an”) Prishtina 1994, Number 2, p. 9, 27.
45. I. Hamza. Cited work, p. 85.
47. The name of the medrese was given according to the builder of the mosque, which is located in medrese yard.
48. I. Hamza. Cited work. P. 77 and “Islamic ethics” Prishtina 1977, number 19, p. 51.
49. In only five last months of 1996 year, important socio-cultural activities were held in “Alauddin” medrese. In the 4.7.96 the commemoration of Isa Boletini death was organized. in 13.7.96 a cultural artistic programe was organized by the youth forum of LDK. The programe was called “Vullneti 96” (The will 96). In 12.10.96 the “open discussion for the prevention of narcotismin Kosova was organized. In 26.10.96 the promotion of the documentary book “Forbidden lectures” was organized B.S.P.K of secondary education in Kosova. In 1-2 november 1996 the Academy of Arts and Sciences of Kosva organized the national symposium “Albanian literature and literary language”.
50. In 1995-1996 scholar year the number of students In “Alauddin” medrese reached 288.
51. B. Curri, Farewell Medrese taken from Magazine “Drita e Kur’anit” (“The light of Quran”) Prishtina 1994, November 12, p. 27.
52. The city of Prizren has a old religious education tradition. The people still remember the Mehmet Pasha, Emin Pasha and Sinan Pasha medrese. The lastest was closed on 1912 with Serbian occupation of Kosova. The Emin Pasha medrese was also closed. Mehmet Pasha medrese functioned till 1947.this medrese has one of the most reach libraries in Kosova with a number of 1700 manuscripts. (These facts are taken from Enver Batiu, a history teacken in Prizren medreses).
53. See for this: The people and sponsor the medrese. Interview with the director of Naim Tervana Medrese. Taken from “Dituria Islame” (“Islamic Knowledge”) Number 94/95, p. 32.
54. Sali Vuçiterni, “On the need for reforms” taken from “Zani I Nallte” (“The loud voice). Tirana 1927, number 7, page 205.
55. Taken from magazine “Zani I nalte” April 1927, number 9, p. 275
56. The report of the directory of education of Albanian Islamic Congregation, April 1994.
57. The objectives of these schools are clearly expressed in a curriculum for the Islamic religious schools prepared by the Albanian Islamic Congregation in 1992. According to the curriculum the aim is “to train young intellectual able to serve to our pure religion of Islam in every city and village as imams, muezins etc. Another aim of this medrese is that the students graduated from them should be able to continue their studies in theological faculties in Albania and abroad as well. (The material is taken from the educational directory of Islamic Congregation in Tirana).
58. The status of Islamic Congregation – art 60 year 1924.
59. The regulation on the organization of cultural branch of Islamic congregation. Article 14m year and place of publication are missing.
60. the first Muslim Congress, held on 1923.
6*. Mehdi Frashri, “The latest ideas of Mehdi Frashri about Islam” (speech delivered on the inauguration day of medrese) Taken from “Zani I Nalte” Tirana 1932, no 6 page 154-158.
63. “Islamic Culture” 1939 number 2, p. 44.
65. Actually this medrese is attended by 310 students and has a teaching personnel of 30 pedagogues.
67- Elez Osmani. The classes in the Faculty of Islamic studies began. “Islamic Knowledge”. Prishtine-1992. 44th edt. p.4.
68-Rexhep Boja (Kercine. Kline) He got his primary and secondary education in Kline, while the high and undergraduate degree in Medina, Sudi Arabia. There he got his master and Ph.d. degrees as well. It was teaching Fiqh in the “Alauddin” Islamic school in Prishtina. He was head of Islamic Community in Kosova.
Qemal Morina (Hodonoc, 1751) got his primary and secondary education in his birthplace. He attended the Prishtina school where he got his high education (1970). He was graduated from Undurman University, Sudan in 1976. While he continued his studies in Cario an orientalism, Morina received Master’s degree in Arabic language (1979). From the year 1990 he holds his post as chief-editor of “Islamic Knowledge” magazine. He’s done researches in albanology.
69- Dr. Rexhep Boja. We shall overcome exny obstacles. Ibid.
70- Dr. Pajazit Nushi. The establishment of the Faculty of Islamic Studies in Prishtina and the principles of organizing work and tasks. “Islamic Knowledge” Prishtina. 1992.42 edt. pp21-24.
75. Dr. Pajazit Nushi. The establishment of the faculty of Islamic Studies in Prishtina and the principles of organizing work and tasks. “Islamic Knowledge”. Prishtina, 1992. p. 42
76- Elez Osmani. First student to be graduated from the Faculty of Islamic Studies. In “Islamic Knowledge” Prishtina.1997. 93rd edt. p 44.
77- Text in original: “Ikra, bismi rabbike…” which means: “Read in the name of the Lord…” Quran, Chapter El-Alak:1
78- It is called Qa’ba in Mekka.
79- Ferit Duka. “Monuments of Albanians conversion to Islam in XV-XII centuries”, held in the international symposium: Religion. Culture, and Islamic Traditions among Albanians. Prishtina. 1995. P. 119.
80-Scientific conference titled: “Islamic Architecture in Albania from its infancy till nowadays”. Speaker: the well known scholar, Sulejman Dashi, 23.October .1997.
83-Academic Husref Rexhiq. “Architecture-The leader in Islamic Culture.” Trans. Nexhat Ibrahimi. Dituri Islame. Nr. 66. P. 27.
84-Zekeria Idrisi, “The Mosque-Islamic Culture and Civilization”. New Crescent, Nr. 40/41. P. 19.
85-E.H. Gombrich. “The story of art”. P. 143.
86- Hysein gjozo. “The importance and the process of collecting and distributing the Zekat and Sadakatul-fitri as based in the Islamic Law (Ahari’a)”. p. 12.
87 Dr. Jashar Rexhepagiq. “The development of the Albanian Educational system in today’s Yugoslavian territories until the year 1918”. Prishtina. 1970. P. 36.
88-Recently some groups are drying to deny the fact that clock towers are objects of Islamic architecture. If we look at it from an architectural and historical point of view we cannot deny this fact… but the stranges thing is that in countries like Montenegro, Kosova and Macedonia, these monuments of Islamic architecture are persistently being attacked by even putting crosses on them. A concrete event is that of the clock towers of Manastir, Prilep, etc…(for more information see: Behixhudin Shehapi.” (clock towers-monuments of Islamic culture.” New Crescent. Nr. 45. P. 19.
89-S. Dashi. Cited work.
90-Xhemil Bektoviq. “Public baths in Macedonia”. Volume IV. P. 30.
91 - Ibid. p. 29, 30.
1 Mag. “Udha e s’vërtetës” was run by Hoxha Kadri Prishtina – Shkodra. 1923 (Religious Magazine in Albanian language).
2 "Zani I Nalte" ("The Loud Voice") Religious magazine. Organ of Albanian Islamic Community
(1923 - 1928)
3. Vaze : Advice, speech of religious natyre
4. Mr. Sherafedin Hoxha. "Islamic magazines and newspapers in Albanian language" In "Edukata Islame" ("Islamic education") mag. Prishtina, 1990. Edt - 53 -54, p. 40-41.
5. Mag "Kultura Islame" ("Islamic culture"), Tirana, 1940 - 1944.
6. "Njeriu" ("The Man") cultural, spiritual, monthly magazine, Tirana. 1942 - 1944.
7. More then 88 % of the Albanian speakers, all over Albanian ethic lands were Muslims… See: Dr. Muhamet Pirraku "Islam - integrated factor on ethnocultural unity of Albania (2)" Dituria Islame. edt 83. P.83
8. The document written in Arabic letters, which today are in the state's archive in Tirana, are very few for justifying the existence of the works of Albanian authors, eralted to different fields of studies. As Prof. Skender Rizaj points out "A real treasure, not even explored yet". Of course we have to take into account the archives outside, and that of Istambul in particular.
9. "Educata Islame " ("Islamic ethics") trimestrial religious magazine. Prishtine. 1971 and on.
10. "Dituria Islame" ("Islamic knowledge") a monthly religious, cultural, scientific magazine. Prishtine. 1986 and on.
11. "Drita Islame" (Islamic Knowledge") newspaper. Tirana. 1992 -
12. "Shkelqimi Islam" ("Islamic Brightness") organ of Albanian Assambley of Muslim Youth. Tirana. 1991 -
13. as we know, "Urtesia" ("Wisdom") magazine is a continuation of "Djersa" ("Perspiration") which was published in Tirana, in 1945 - 46 and issued 13 editions altogether. Its chief editor Ibrahim Hasnaj, was arrested in 1947 and as a result was not published any longer.
14. "Al Hilal" ("Crescent moon") cultural informative newspaper. Skopie.
15. "Hena e Re" ("Crescent moon") Islamic cultural informative newspaper. Skopie.
16. "Elif" ("The Word"), Podgorica, 1990-
17. Said Najden, Fe -rrefanjsja e Muslimaneve ("religion -guide of the Muslims") from Imam Voka.
18. Koli Xoxe. Fe - rrefenjsja ("Religion -Guide) of Said Najdeni (Imam Voka). Newspaper: "RD". Tirana. 24.08.1994.
19. Rexhep Voke - Tetova "Mendime" ("Ideas"). Mufti of Manastir, Tetova. Constandinopole (Istambul) 1906.
20. Omer M. Sharra. "A short description of the Prophet's life". Translation, 1927.
21. Qur'an: 2
22. Vehbi Dibra. "Ç'urdheron Kur'ani" ("What does Qur'an commands"). Harper Woods. Mich. 1993. P. 1
23. Dr. ali Muhamed Amari, "Min Hadithil Qur'ani amil Insani", mekkah. 1989. P. 43.
24. Muhamed El- Hasenij. "Zubdul itkan fi ulumil Qur'an". Jiddah1886.
25. Chapter El-Alak: 1 (taken from the translation of I. H. Sherif Ahmeti.)
26. Vehbi Ismaili. "Drite nga Kur'ani" ("Light from Qur'an"). Harper Woods. Mich. 1991. P. 3.4
27. Prof. Idriz Ajeti. "Kur'ani dhe Shkenca" ("Qur'an and Science") mag. "Thirrja Islame" ("Islamic call") 1993. Mich.-USA
28. Roxhe Garod. Gjallerimi Islamik" ("Islamic ******"). Gjakova. 1991, p.65
29. I. Rushdi "Traktati mbi konfirmimin e relacionit mes filozofise dhe sheriatit" ("Treaty on confirmation of the relations between philosophy and Islamic law"). Tetova. 1993. P. 43.
30. Verse - sentence, a hole extract taken from the Qur'an.
31. Dr. Feti Mehdiu. The second translation of the Qur'an in Albanian language. Mag. "Dituria Islame" ("Islamic knowledge"). Prishtina. Edt. 37. 1992 p. 26.
32. Information taken from the office of the wakf in Albanian Islamic Community, 1994.
33. Dr. Feti Mehdiu. "Translations of the Qur'an into Albanian language" in "Drita Islame". Mag. Prishtina 1992edt. 36-39, and "Elif" newspaper. Podgorica. 1991. Edt. 7 p. 4.
34. … the majestic chapter Ya Sin… Religious publications of "Ora e Shkodres" Press. (Withought a publication dates).
35. In this book of 6pages, there are several verses of different chapters of the Qur'an, according to the selection made by the translator. "The holy Qur'an" of Hfz. A. Zemblaku, published in 1934, Korça.
36. Qazim Qazimi "Introduction to the science of Qur'an". Prishtina. 1993. Published by "Alauddin" medrasah. This book deals in a professional way with several important topics ,such as: "Qur'an as a divine book", "Qur'an and its denominations", "The science of Tefsir (explanation) and its developments", "Translations of Qur'an", etc.
37. Dr. Fetih Mehdiu. "From Qur'anic themes". Skopie. 1993.
38. Dr. Fetih Mehdiu is one of the most productive authors. He has published "Arab poetry", Skopie, 1983, Sami Frashri Volume-7 Kamus al-Alam". Prishtina, 1984; "Qur'an", Prishtina 1985; "Arabic Language I&II Fonetics, Morfology", Prishtina, 1992 etc.
39. Avni Aliu. "Qur'an and human rights". Gjilan. 1994.
40. M. Mazllumi. "Knowledge about Qur'an", Prizeren, 1995.
41. Adnan Misuni. "Qur'an - book for those alive or …", Mitrovica. 1995.
42. Dr. Mourice Bucaille. "Qur'an and Modern sciences". Tirana 1992.
43. Dr. Feti Mehdiu. Cited work.
44. Mag. "Zani I Nalte" ("Loud Voice) Tirana. 1927. Edt. 7. p. 220.
45. Ibid. 1931. Edt. 1 p. 15.
46. Mag. "Zani I Nalte". Tirana 1932. Edt. 7-8. P. 172.
47. Mag. "Edukata Islame". Prishtina. 1985. Edt. 43. P. 10.
48. Qazim Qazimi. "Introduction to Qur'anic sciences". Prishtina. 1993. 131.
49. World bibliography of translation of the meanings of the Holy Qur'an, printed translations 1515 - 1980. Reseach center for Islamic history, art and culture. Istambul 1406/1986
50. Faik Miftari. Hafizes of Prishtina. Drita. Edt. 3. 1995
51. Ibid. p. 8.
52. Ramiz Zekaj (prepared) "Rules on Qur'anic recitation". Medinah. 1992.
Hfz. Hajredin Hoxha. "Methodology of memorizing the Qur'an". Prizren. 1996.
54. El-hadithu – literally means “new” or “beginning” or “something that has recently started”. This term in Arabic language to the words one says in order to express something. While according to islamic terminology it means: “All the words, deeds and approvals of the Prophet Muhammed (p.b.u.h.)”. see . Sulejman Osmani “sunah at the baso of Islamic law”. Gjilan 1996, p. 26.
55. “Hadith –Errbein”. 40 sayings of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) in a summary which became leader of the fullfillment… Compiled by Nevevi. Translated by Hfz. I. Dalliu. Tirana. 1940.
56. “150 hadiths” (Sayings of the Prophet Muhammed (p.b.u.h.)) chosen and translated by I. Vehbi Ismaili. Michigan. USA 1990.
- Jahir Beqiri “Thus spoke Muhamed” translated from Bosnian by J. Beqiri. I&II vol. Prishtina 1994.
- Al-Azhar E sherif “Forty hadiths” (scared qudsi) translated from Arabic with notes of Buhari Al-Din S. Fili, Cairo, 1990.
- I. Sharefed Din Neveviu. “Forty Hadiths” (Prophets (p.b.u.h.) sayings ). “Hadiths from Muhamed (p.b.u.h.)” from Samedin Abuzi “CoKavaja – Albania”, 1994.
- I. En. Nevevi “Forty Hadiths the appendix of Ibn Rexhep” trans. Nexhat Ibrahimi. Skopie 1992.
- Ahmed ibn Tejmije. “The rice word” Trans. Zekerija Bajrami
- Dr. Muhamed Haxhaxh al-Hatibi “Speak from prophetic orientation”. From Muslem Mazllumi.
57. Chapter – Al Ahzabe, verse 21.
58. Mehdi Polisi “Sahih al Bukhari in Albanian language” book I – 348, pp. 14. Prishtina 1994.
59. I. Vehbi Ismaili, 150 Hadiths, XLIII.
60. Mishkatul Mesahib, 1:6:1.
61. Dr. Muhamed Axhaxh el Hetibi, “Sparks from prophets guidance”. Trans. Muslem Mazllemi.
62. Ahmed Ibn Teimijah. “The beautiful word”. Trans Mr. Zekerija Bajrami
63. Suleiman Osmani “Sunnah basis of Islamic law” Gjilan 1996, p. 209.
65. Feti Mehdiu. Mewluds and Albanians. Mag. “Bashkimi Paqesor”. Prishtina. 1992 edt. 2,3 p. 8
66. History of Albanian literature. Vol. 1 Tirana 1959. Pp. 273.
67. Feti Mehdiu. “Mewluds and Albanians”, pp. 8. Quoted work.
68. Hfz. Ali Ulqinaku. Mewlud sherif . The birth of Muhammed (p.b.u.h.) “Kristoo Luarasi” Press, 1993.
69. H. Abdullah Zemblaku. Mewlud … Korca, 1993.
70. Hfz. A . Korca , Mewlud – Birth of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.). Tirana 1934.
71. Hfz. I. Dalliu. Birth and life of Muhammed the Great. Tirana, 1934.
72. From, “Dituria Islame” Prishtina 1991. Edt. 31;31. Pp.24.
73. Hfz. A. Ulqinaku. Mewlud sherif. Tirane 1993, pp.22.
74. Hfz. A. Korca. Quoted work.
75. T. E. Popova. Quoted work.
76. I. Lamaj from 1982 publication, pp. 21.
77. F. osmani mewlud. Skopie, 1990. Pp. 18, 21.
78. Muhammed Ali, M. A. LL. B. “Nje pershkrim I shkurter I jetes se profetit te Islamizmes”. Toronto, Canada, 1992.
79. Hfz. Ibrahim Dalliu “E lemja dhe jeta e te madhit Muhamed Alejhi Selam “. American-Albanian Islamic Center. New Jersey 1992 (Republication of Albanians in USA). First publication made in Tirana, 1934.
80. Fan S. Noli. Volume 4. Historical writings. Tirana 1989. Pp. 615-620 (“Muhameti”).
81. Fan S. Noli. Ibid, pp. 618.
82. Ibid pp. 619.
83. Imam Vehbi Ismaili. “Muhamedi profeti islam”. Albania, Islamic Center Harper Woods. Mich. USA. (Sec. Publication, 1978). Republishedin Skopie, Prishtine, Tirana, etc.
84. Robert. L. Gulick. Jr. “Muhamedi edukator”. Trans. Reshat Agaj. First published in 1992. Alb. Isl. Centre Harper Woods, Mich. USA.
85. Teufik El-Hakim. “Muhamedi profet njeri”… Mich. 1992.
86. Abdet –Tev-Vab Jusuf. “Muhamedi” (20 stories). Translated from Arabic I. V. Ismaili. First published, 1990… Mich. USA.
87. “Meshira e dhurume Lanesise (p.b.u.h.)” written by Proff. Haxhi Vehbi Gavoci. Shkodra, 1993.
88. Leila Azam –Aisha Gouverner. “Jeta e te derguarit Muhamed (p.b.u.h.)”. Skopie. 1994 (Trans. V. Pashka.).
89. J. V. Goethe. “Vepra te zgjedhura” (“Chosen works”) II. M. Frashri. Press. Tirana. 1988. Pp. 343 –345.
90. One lecturer of medresah “Isa Beu” in Skopie, supported his PhD thesis with Naim’s ideas towards religion.
91. Symposium organised in Shipkovica , Tetova, 1994. Spokers, Vehbi Bexheti, Xhevat Gega, Ali Vishka, Tahir Zajazi, Remzi Nesimi etc.
92. Dr. Jashar Rexhepaviq: “Zhvillimi I arsimit dhe I sistemit shkollor te kombesise shqiptare ne territorin e jugosllavis se sotme deri ne vitin 1918”. Prishtina. 1970.
93. Jashar Rexhepaviq: “Sami Frashri dhe Pedagogjia e rilindjes”. Prishtine. 1995. See also A. Naqellari dhe A. Pango: “Hasan Tahsini”. Tirana 1980.
94. M. Kraja: “Mesuesit per kombin shqiptar”. Tirana 1993.
95. Dr. M. Kraja –Dr. D. Haruni: “Gostivari dhe Abdulhaqim Dogani”, Tetova, March 1995.
96. Abdi Baleta: “Shqipetaret perballe shovinizmit serbo-grek” –Chosen summery of articles and interviews. Tirana . 1995.
97. Ahmed Kondo: “Vexhi Buharaja – njeriu, poeti, dijetari”. Tirana 1995.
98. Demir Behluli: “Arabeska Origjinale ne xhami te kosoves lindore (1984-1994)”. Monography. Gjilan. 1995.
99. Introduction. Ibid
100. Daud Izari – Hoxha: “Piroku yne”, Tetova. 1996.
101. Daud Izari – Hoxha, quoted work. Pp. 134.
102. Ibid pp. 138.
103. Dr. M. Kraja –Dr. S. Haruni: “Gradeci –Droudakum”. Tetova. 1995.
104. Team of authors. Zagreb 1989. Pp. 42-43.
105. Dr. M. Kraja: “Hakmarrja tek shqiptaret”. Tirane. 1996. Pp. 37-46.
106. Team of authors: “Reflekse sociale – pedagogjike”. Tetova. 1996, pp. 15-22, 114-122.
107. “roli I besimit musliman ne Shqiperine post komuniste”, Tirana 1994.
108. “Feja, kultura dhe tradita islame nder shqiptaret”. Prishtina, 1994.
109. Academy of science” Letersia si e tille”. Tirana, 1996 among which also : - M. Hysa (Tetov): Changing the theme of “Eureheja” poetry and reduction of the fairy tale “Jusuf and Zyliha” : - V. Malaj: “Kontributi I Franceskaneve ne letersine shqipe “: - V. Bexheti: On the work of Rexhep Voka, etc.
1. There exist a great number of arguments that prove the fact that Islam had penetrated in Albania in the form of esoteric-batini safism (besides the contacts of the Albanian traders with Sarçen merchant. R.Z.).Tthe first sign of Islamic spreading in albania are found in the beginning of 14th century , 5-6 decades before the penetration of the Turkish army in albanian lands. During this time the missionaries’ dervishes such as Sari Salltik Baba, Sejid Ali Sulltani, Qamil Baba and others appeared in Albania. These dervishes were the first to introduce Islam in Albanian lands (See more informations on this issue: Ekrem Vlora, notes on the history of Islam in Albania (II), taken from The Islamic Albanian life, number 4, Detroit 1959 page 7). This missionary was composed of dervishes and students of Haxhi Bektash Veliut (1248-1341). They preached Islam incognito pretending to be the cristian mystic. See for this: Nehat Krasniqi, “Triva important geanalogical documents”. “Islamic Knowledge” number 59, p. 13.
2. “The history of Albanian literature” – Published by the University of Tirana, IGHS, Tirana 1959, p. 249.
3. Said Najdeni (1846-1903). According to different sources he was known as “Hoxhe Voka”. With the same name was also known another Islamic figure. They both were religious and national activists and this is probably the reason they are often mistaken for each other sometimes even by the press. Said Najdeni is Hoxhe Voka of Dibra while Rexhep Voka (from Tetova) is Hoxhe Voka of Tetova (Shipkovica).
4. S. Temo, L. Bilbili et al. “Said Najdeni (1864-1903) –tirana, 196.
5. Tahir Efendi Huka (1822-1908).
6. Dr. Muhamet Piraku “Kultura kombetare Shqiptare deri ne Lidhjen e Prizrenit”, Prishtina 1989, pages 375, 384,393.
- Abdullah Hamiti “Angazhimi I Tahir Hukes per arsimin kombetar shqiptar”. Taken from “Feja, Kultura dhe tradita Islame nder Shqiptaret”, Prishtina, 1992 – 1995, pgt. 385-393.
7. Ibid pg. 390-395
- Jashar Rexhepagiq “The development of education and scholar system among Albanian population in Yugoslavia’s territory till the year 1918”. Prishtina 1970, pg. 135.
8. ibid, pg. 390-395.
- see also: “Itifak”, Prishtina 1st January 1993. No. 80-81.
9. M. Pirraku. Ibid.
10. Kadri Gjata (1865-1912).
11. The private archive of Gjata’s family.
12. “Zgjimi I shqiperise”, Janian 1909. The fist number was issued in 1st June 1909. The editors were Kadri Gjata, Musa Demi and others.
13. Taken from the private archive of Gjata’s family.
14. Prof. Dr. Hajrullah Koliqi. “Kraja nder Mote”. Prishtina 1993, pg. 63-64.
15. Fadil Kraja, Revista Islame, (Islamic Magazine) October 1992.
16. Osman Muderrizi. “Letersia shqipe me shkronja arabe” 1954 IHGJ –see also the magazine “Studime filozofike” – Tirana, 1963/3, pg. 154 – 188 in which it is mentioned that Ali Ulqinaku is the author of an Albanian-Turkish dictionary containing 4000 Albanian sentences….. –“Edukata Islame” year 1973/7, pg. 47.
17. SHETOS. “Hfz Ali ulqinaku – Autor I Mevludit Shqip” taken from the magazine “Kultura Islame”, Tirana 1940/ No.13-14.
- sitki Malohoxha: “Rreth mevludit te Hfz. A. R. Ulqinakut” Taken from “Hena e re” 1.8.1993, pg. 59.
18. “Mevludi Sherif – Lindja e hazretit Muhameti (a.s.)” was republished according to the verdict of Islamic Congregation permanent council no. 139 date 26.9.1933. published by “Kristo Luarasi” printing house. Tirana, there is no year of publishing.
- see even: Prof. Maksut Xh. Haxhibrahimoviq, “Zhvillimi I arsimit dhe kultures Islame Shqiptare ne Ulqin”, taken from the newspaper “Elif” no.7, pg. 11. Podgorica.
19. Hasan Kaleshi: “Disa aspekte te luftes per alfabetin shqip ne Stamboll” taken from “Gjurmime Albaniologjike”. Prishtine 1969, no. 1, pg. 110.
20. Rexhep Voke –Tetova “Mendime – Myfti I Manastirit”. Tetova 1991/1412. The title of the original work: “Mendime –Murettibi Manastir Myftisi – Kalkandekuli Rexhep Xhevali binNuredin Voka Tab-I ev-vel: Matbai Ebu Zija 1327.
21. Kadri Lutfullah Prishtina |(1878 – 1925).
22. Jup Kastrati “Atdhetar dhe demokrat I shquar “ taken from the magazine “mesuesi” (the teacher) 11.4.1979 – “Shqiperia me 1937” vol. 1, Tirana 1937.
23. “Udha e se vertetes” Shkodra 1923, 1,2,3 taken from “Studime historike “ (“Historical studie”) 1972 no. 2.
25. Nevila Nika. “Udha e se verteres taken from “Drita Islame” (Islamic light), December 1992.
26. Kambiar calendar 1909.
27. Hoxhe Hasan Vogli (1870-1928)
28. The archive of the elementary school “Hasan Vogli” – Tirana. See also “Fjalor encklopedik shqiptar”. Tirana 1985, p. 1173.
29. “Fjalori enciklopedik shqiptar” – Tirana 1985 pg. 1173.
30. F. Kasollja “Mesuesi e kleriku patriot – Hasan Vogli” taken from “Drita Islame” December 1992.
- V. Nevznxi “Hasan Vogli” taken from the newspaper “Mesuesi” 29.12.1982.
31. Qamil Bala (1884-1933) newspaper “Mesusesi” 22.8.1979. see BK S/90-44D “Flete historiku” Tirana 1963. Pg. 135
- Iljaz Goga. “Qamil Bala shembelltyre e atdhetarit dhe arsimit shqiptar” taken from “rilindja” 27/x 28/x 1994, pg. 14.
32. Mehmet Akif Esraj (1873-1936)
33. Nexhip P. Alpan – Nesip Koci. “Shqiptaret ne perandorine osmane”, pg. 158, 159.
36. Haxhi Vehbi Dibra “Curdheron Kurani” Michigan USA 1993 (The writings are taken from “Zani I Nalte”).
37. “Feja, kultura dhe tradita Islame te shqiptaret” Prishtina 1995 pg. 195.
38. Hysen Kordha “Kontributi I bektashinjve ne levizjen kombetare shqiptare” taken from “Rilindja javor” Tirana 1-7 September 1996 pg. 20.
39. Mulla Hasan Masurica (1896 –1942).
40. Hasan Kaleshi “Kontributi … “ 1992, p. 46.
41. See for this “dituria Islame”, 1993 number 50, pages 37-39. Se also “Hena e re” 1994, no. 69, pg. 30.
42. Ismail Ndroqi (1876-1944) see the magazine “Kultura Islame” year 1944 no. 7-8, March April, pg. 222-223.
43. The central archive of state of Albanian F. 258 also F of intenational affairs ministry D. 833.
- Magazine “Dituria Islame”, Prishtina 1991, no. 28.
44. Historical document V. i. March 1924. No. 1, pg. 24.
45. Hafiz Ymer Shemsiu (1895-1945).
46. Muhamed Pirraku. “Hafiz Ymeri –Bord I Kosoves se vitieve ’20 e ‘30” taken from the magazine “Dituria Islame” Prishtina 1992 (September) no 42, pg. 15-20.
54. Hafiz Ibrahim Dalliu (1878-1952)
55. SHETOS. “Ibrahim Dalliu – Gjykimi mbi ato vepra” in “Kulruta Islame” mag. 1940/16, pp. 91-94. –Sinan Tafaj. “Ibrahim Dalliu – in “Ravista pedagogjike” mag. 1984/3, pp. 123-130. –Dr. Musa Kraja. “Shtigjeve te idealit”. In “Hena e Re” newspaper. Nov. 1992/44, pp.17.
56. “Alfabeti I Gjuhes Shqipe dhe kongresi I Manastirit” Tirana 1972, pp. 381-382.
57. Luigj Gurakuqi. “ja halldup, ja Shqiptar!” In “Lajmetari” Mag. (“Liri e Shqiperise”), Sofie, Jun. 1914/44.
58. Gj. Fishta. “Lahuta e Malsise”. Rome. 1989, pp. 470.
59 Ibrahim Dalliu. “Kreshniku I atdheut- Avni Rustemi”, Shkodra. 1920(Bk –Sn/R23).
60. Sinan Tafaj. “Ibrahim Dalliu”. Monograph. Tirana 1989, pp. 112.
61. Haxhi Hafiz Ismet Dibra (1886-1955).
62. H. Kaleshi. “Kontributi I shqiptareve ne diturine Islame”. Saudi Arabia. 1993. Pp. 79.
63. Mr. Nexhat abazi. “Abdulhaqim H. Dogani”. In “Hena e Re”. Mag. 1993. Edt. 56. 57.
64. Dr. Musa Kraja –Dr. Sejfedin Haruni. “Gostivari dhe Abdulhaqim Dogani”. Tetova. 1995. See also. Mihal Grameno . volume 2 –Prishtina. 1979. Pp. 253.
*Hafiz (arb), title of a person who has memorized the Holy Quran (Translators note)
**Hoxh (turk) Religious teacher/schoolar
65. Hafiz Ali Korca (1874-1957) see: Sadik Bega, “Hfz. Ali Korca”, Kultura Islame, 1941/No. 3-4, pg. 102-107
66. See: Drita Islame, 1941/No. 14 (39).
67. Ismail Ahmeti – faculty of Philosophy – Prishtine “Tema e Kur’anit ne vepren e Hafiz Mikorces”, in “Hena e re”, 1993.
68. Personal archieve of the family (Bega).
69. “Kultura Islame” monthly, religious literary –scientific and artistic. Director, Sadik Bega. Circulated during 1940-1944.
70. “Tre mesime mbi Descartes’in”, by Alexander Kayre. Translated by Prof. S. Bega, director of “Kultura Islame”, Tirane, 1942.
71. M. H. Hejqel, “Jeta e Muhamedit a.s.”, translated by S. Bega in “Kultura Islame”, 1941. No. 1,2 and in continuation.
72. S. Bega. “Hafiz Ali Korca, pasqyre atdhetarizmi per brezin e ri.”. In “Kultura Islame”, Tirana, No. 3-4, 1941.
73. Ferid Mustaf Vokopola (1887-1969)
74. “Shqiperia me 1937” – Tirane, 1937.
75. Osman Muderrizi (1891 –1973)
76. Jorgo Bulo “Ndihmese per historine e letersise Shqipe” in “Drita Islame” No. 1 (44) pg. 4, January 1994, Tirana.
78. Hafiz Ali Kraja (1900 – 1974).
79. Nasuf Dizdari, “Fetar, atdhetar dhe dietar Hafiz Ali Kraja (Torja) 1900 –1974)”, in the book “Disa fjale patriote muslian shqiptare”, Micigan, 1992-96.
81. Mentor Quku, “Klerik I devotshem dhe atdhetar I vendosur Hafiz Ezad Mytia, 1911-1975” in “Drita Islame”, 1992, No. 13.
82. Ibid. see also: “Disa patriote fetare Muslimane Shqiptare”, pg. 97-102.
86. Mulla Rexhep Krasniqi (1905 – 1976).
87. Haki Sharofi (1884 – 1977).
88. Ali Hoxha, “Haki Sharofi”, in “disa fetare patriote muslimane Shqiptare”, Micigan – USA, 1912 pg. 103-111.
- Sherif Osmani, “Optika Islame ne kuadrin e reformave te viteve ‘30” in “Drita Islame” No. 84. January 1996.
91. Vexhi Buharaja (1920-1987).
92. Ahmed Kondo, “Vexhi Buharaja, njeriu, poeti, dijetari, 1920-1987”, Berat, 1995.
- Gazmend Shpuza “Vexhi Buharaja – Letrar dhe orientalist I shquar – sesioni shkencor me 22 Maj 1995 kushtuar 75-vjetorit te lindjes” in the magazine “Perla”, 1996/2 pg. 116-119.
95. “Udheheqes shpirteror I muslimaneve shqiptare ne boten e lire – Hazhi Sali Myftia”, in “Disa patriote fetere muslimane shqiptare”, Micigan (USA), 1992, pg. 112 –120.
98. Binoze Kacabaci – Dauti (1891 –1981)
99. Hafiz Bajrami – “Qendrimi I Jugosllavise Monarkiste ndaj arsimit dhe kultures shqiptare ne kosove (1918-1941) in mag. “Kosova” – Prishtina, 1983, No. 12, pg. 201
100.Mulla Ismaili (1918-1986).
101.“Dituria Islame”, XII year, No. 81-82, 1996, pg. 28.
103.Vejsel Xheladin Guta (1905 – 1987).
104.Dr. Muhamet Pirraku, “Kendoj dhe kur e kishte te ndaluar”, in “Dituria Islame, “Prishtine, 1991, No. 24, pg. 21.
105.“Dituria Islame”, Prishtina 1991, No. 22 – 23, pg. 34.
106.I, the writer of this book, am one of the students of Mulla Zeka. From him we learned the foundations of Islamic faith, how to know Allah, how to love our country and nation, how to live with dignity, how to serve our country and people. (Dr. Ramiz Zekaj, Tirana, 1997).
107.Hasan Efendi Nahi (1905-1991).
108.Raport of the visit of chairman of Albanian Muslim Community in Kosva, in “Kultura Islame” No. 3-4, 1941.
110.“Dituria Islame”. No. 81-82, Prishtina 1996 and in other edition of this magazine as No. 64, January 1995 in “Biografia e tij, pune, krijimtari, fe e patriotizm” etc.
112.“Te Zotiti jemi dhe tek ai do the kthehemi”, “Dituria Islame” No. 28, August 1991, pg. 50.
114.Sulejman Osmani, “Suneti baze e Sheriatit”, Gjilan 1996, pg. 213.
115.Ibrahim Muhamed Mahmud El Kufij, “Dhejh Shuaj Arnauti… Dijetari – kritiku”, Manuscript of 16 pages in Arabic
119.“Disa fjale per autorin” in “Forma e namazit te Muhamedit”, pg. 5-11.
120.The science of Hadith is among most prefered Islamic Science and the second foundation of Islamic Shari’a. Its object is to study the life, the work and the instructions of Muhammed (a.s.).
121.Sulejman Osmani, “Sunneti baze e Sheriatit”, Gjilan 1996, pg. 209.
123.This great Albania we had the chance to meet, during the time of studies in Medina. Inmeetings we had with him, he never hesitated to advice us (in Albanian language) for the amanah.
124.Idriz Vuciterna: “Nilmi Maliqi-veprimtar I shquar e kombetar” in Dituria Islame”, September 1995, pg. 44.
126.Musa Kraja, “Mesuesit per kombin Shqiptar”, Tirana 1993, pg. 78.
127.Jashar Rexhepagiq: “Zhvillimi I Arsimit dhe I sistemit shkollor te kombesise shqiptare ne territoret e Jugosllavise se sotme, deri ne vitin 1918”, Prishtine 1970, pg. 139.
3. Musa Kraja…. Cited work, pg. 79.
128 Mark Krasniqi, “Sheh Milmi Maliqi”, “Jeta e re”, 1953 No. 4, pg. 240
129 “Mesuseit per kombin…”, cited work, pg. 79.
130 F. Luli, I. Dizari, “Imam V. I. Teolog, atdhetar e dijetar I shquar” A speech held in the ceremony of the decoration of I. V. I. at the “Migeni” theater, on 25th November 1996, Skoder, “Drita Islame”, No. 23-24.
132 Thirrja Islame, 4 October 1994, pg. 32.
133.Interview with Rexhep Morina, issued in “Thirrja Islame” 4 October 1994.
134. Sherif Ahmeti “Komente dhe mendime”, Prishtina 1995. fq. 396
SOURCES AND LITERATURE
1. Archive of Meshihat of Islamic Congregation-Prishtina
2. Archive of Meshihat of Islamic Congregation-Skopie
3. Archive of Meshihat of Islamic Congregation-Podgorica
4. Materials available in Islamic Congregation of Prizren
5. Materials available in Islamic Congregation of Gjakova
6. Materials available in Islamic Congregation of Peja
7. Materials available in Islamic Congregation of Mitrovica
8. Materials available in Islamic Congregation of Gjilan
9. Archive SR Crne Gore-Cetinje,sources:
Ministarstvo prosvjete i arkivnih poslava
Ministarstvo unitrasnjih djela,upramo odljenje
Arcive of Yugoslavia Belgrade,sources:
Ministarstvo Pravde Krajlevine Jugosllavije
10. The state archive of Macedonia.Sources:
Poverenstvo Skopje Vrhovno muftistvo
11. The archive of the History Insitution-Tirana
12. The central State archive of the Republic of Albania. Sources: The Ministers Council.The ministry of Education and Culture.
2. Regulations and Statutes
1. The basic regulation of "Drita Hyjnore" organization,Tirana 1943
2. Regulation on the organization of Xhama-atit Council of districts…Tirana 1925
3. Regulation on the organization of muslim wakfs in Albania.Tirana 1925
4. Regulation on the general administrative-financial actions and wakfs of Islamic Congregation in Albania. Shkodra 1931
5. Regulation on the medrese. Shkodra 1925
6. Regulation on the high medrese. Shkodra 1925
7. Regulation on the organization of cultural branch of Islamic Congregation. Tirana 1931
8. Regulation of the internal administration of Albanian Bektashi Congregation. Tirana 1925
9. Regulation of Bektashi. Elbasan 1991.
10. Internal Regulation of Albanian Islamic Congegration 1991
11. The status of Albanian Muslim Xhemat body. Tirana 1923
12. The status of Albanian Islamic Congregation1929
13. The status of Albanian Bektashi Congregation 1950
14. The status of Albanian Islamic Congregation 1991
15. The status of Yugoslavian Islamic Congregation 12.4.1990
16. Project-constitution of Republic of Kosova Islamic Congregation-issued in the magazine "Dituria Islame" Number 59-1994
3. The libraries
1. The national library-Tirana
2. The library of the Kosova BI chairmanship. Prishtina
3. The library of "Alauddin" medrese. Prishtina
4. The Yugoslavian library "Ciril e Metodie", Prizren
5. The library of Catholic church of Ferizaj
6. Council's library of Ulema organization Prizren
7. The library of the Macedonian Meshihat chairmanship in Skopie.
8. "Isa beu" medrese's library-Skopie
9. Several personal libraries in Peja,Gjakova, Tirana, Kavaja etc
4. General literature
1. History of Albania II. Tirana 1984.(published by ASH of RPSSH)
2. History of Albania III. Tirana 1984.(published by ASH of RPSSH)
3. History of Albania IV. Tirana 1983 (published by ASH of RPSSH)
4. History of Albania. Volume I. Tirana 1983(published by ASH of RPSSH)
5. History of Albanian literature, Tirana 19839published by Ash of RPSSH)
6. History of Albanian education. Tirana 1990.(published by ISP)
7. History of Albanian people. Tirana 1994(group authors)
8. Albanian Encyclopedic dictionary. Tirana 1985(published by ASH of RPSSH)
9. Philosophical dictionary. Tirana 1982
10.Pedagogical dictionary. Tirana 1983-Shefik Osmani
11.Alija Izetbegoviq "Islami ndermjet lindjes dhe perendimit" Skopie 1994
12.A. Bace, A Meksi, E Riza "Berati,historia dhe arkitektura". "8 nentori" printing house (no date of publication)
13. Aleksander Meksi "Ndertimet e kultit musliman ne Shqiperi" in "Studime Historike". Tirana 1980,number I, page.189-218
14. Dr Branko Babic "Politika Crne Gore u novo aslobagjenim Krajevima 1912-1914.OBOD CETINJE.
15. E. Durham, Brenga e Ballkanit(The struggle for sentari) 1994
17. Work diary of lower Albanian medrese, school year 1951/52. Prishtina
18. Edein E. Jacques, "Shqiptaret-vellimi i I-- Populli shqiptar nga lashtesia deri ne vitin 1912" translated from English by Edi Seferi. Published on Kadikoy-Istanbul/Turkey feb 1996
19. Elira Cela. Tradita afetare te popullit shqiptar. Tirana 1991
20. "E verteta mbi Kosoven dhe shqiptaret ne Yugosllavi"(published by the RPSSH [Peoples Socialist Republic of Abania] academy of science)
21. Fan S. Noli "Muhameti" 4 january 1938. Work 4. Tirana 1989,page 615-620
22. Hammudeh Abdul-ati "Islami ne fokus". Skopie 1992
23. Hasan Cengiq. "temat Islame". Skopie 1993
24. Husein Gjozo."Islami ne kohe". Skopie 1993
25. Hysni Myzyri. "Shkollat e para kombetare shqipe". Tirana 1973
26. Hafiz Ali Kraja "A duhet feja,a e pengon bashkimin kombetar". Shkodra 1934
27. Mr. Hakif Bajrami. Rrethanat shoqerore-politike ne Kosove ne 1841-1918. Prishtina1979(manuscript)
28. Dr.Haki Kasumi "Bashkesite fetare ne Kosove". Prishtina 1988
29. Izveshtoj o radu ulema-mexhlisa u Skopju u 1931 god.
30. Dr Jashar Rexhepagiq."Zhvillimi I arsimit dhe I sistemit shkollor ne kombesine shqiptare ne territorin e Jugosllavise se sotme deri ne vitin 1918". Prishtina 1970
31. Dr. Muhamet Pirraku. "Kultura Kombtare Shqiptare deri ne Lidhjen e Prizrenit". Prishtina 1989
32. Dr. Mustafa Mahmud "Dialogu me mikun ateist". Prishtina 1990
33. Dr. Muhamet Piraku. Mulla Idriz Gjilani dhe mbrojtja kombetare e Kosoves Lindore 1941
34. Mark Krasniqi."Gjurme e gjurmime". Prishtine 1979
35. M.Tirtja. "Besime te bdryshme ne kulturen popullore shqiptare,procesi i zhdukjes se tyre pas clirimit"(Etnofrafia shqiptare.Number 11. 1990)
36. Report on the work of Ulemma Maxhlisit of Skopie.1938/39
37. Sami Frasheri."Shqiperia c'ka qene,c'eshte e c'do te behet". Tirana 1962
38. Shyqyri Ballova. Internacionalja III. Tirana 1986
39. "Konferenca e II e studimeve Albanologjike".(The second conference of Albanian studies).Volume II. Tirana 1969 (Gj.Frasheri dhe S.Dashi)
5. Islamic literary and scientific works
1. Abdul Wahid Hamid. "Islamizmi-rruga e natyrshme". Istanbul 1992
2. Ilo Mitke Qafezezi. "Kur'ani" (translated from English). Ploesht 1921
3. Ahmed Deedat."Kur'ani mrekullia me e persosur".Skopie 1986
4. Alia Izetbegoviq.íslami sot dhe neser".Tirana 1992
5. Dr.Abdullah Sead."te vertetat esenciale te Islamit".tetove 1994
6. Dr.Ali sheriati."Njeriudhe Islami".tetova 1991
7. Dr.Ali Mohamed Amari."Min Hadithi Ku'ran Anil Insan".Mecca 1989
8. Hfs.Ali Korca.”Historia e shenjte dhe kater halifete”.Tirana 1931
9. Hfs.Ali Korca.”Muslimanesia”.Korca 1919.
10. Hfs.Ali Korca.”Shtate endrrat e Shqiperise”.Tirana 1944
11. Hfs.Ali Korca.”303 fjalet e Imam Aliut”.Korca 1910
12. Hfs.Ali Korca.”Kur’anu i madhenueshemdhe thelbi I tij”.Shkoder 1926
13. Abdullah Zemlaku.”Pese kaside te imamllareve”.Korca 1924
14. A.Zemlaku. Kurani qerim,xhuzi 30(“Amme”).Korca
15. Bajrush Ahmeti.”Historia e Pejgamereve”…Tirana 1995
16. Baba Rexhepi.”Misticisma Islame dhe Bektashizma”. New York 1970
17. Badawi. ”Statusi dhe roli i gruas ne Islam”. Tirana 1992
18. Baba Ali Tomorri. ”Historia e pergjithshme e Bektashinjve”.
19. Baba Ali Tomorri. ”Bektashinjte e Shqiperise”(date and place of publishing not stated)
20. Baba Ali Tomorri. ”Literatura Bektashiane”(date and place of publishing not stated)
21. Ebul Aela el Maududi (P.R) ”Parimet e islamizmit”. Beirut 1984
22. Dr.Feti Mehdiu.Kur’ani(Albanian translation). Prishtina 1985.
23. Ferit Vokopola. "Lindja e te Naltit Ali". Tirana. 1940.
24. Dr.Feti Mehdiu. "Nga tematika e Kur'anit". Skopje. 1993.
25. Hasan Kaleshi. "Kontributi i shqiptareve ne diturine Islame". 1992.
26. Hurshid. "Jeta familjare ne Islam". Prishtina. 1994.
27. Haki Sharofi. "Edukata fetare e morale". Mich. USA, 1985.
28. Prof. Hasan I. Nahi. "Kur'ani" (Albanian translation). 1988.
29. Hfz. I. Dalliu. "Mesime teorike dhe praktike te moralit Islam". (translations). Tirana, 1935.
30. Hfz. I. Dalliu. "Libri i te falmes", Tirana, 1941
31. Hfz. I. Dalliu. "Ajka e kuptimeve te Kur'ani Qerimit" Tirana, 1935.
32. "Disa fetare patriote maslimane shqiptare". Albanian Islamic Library. Mich.USA. 1992.
33. Ibn. Rushdi. " Traktati mbi konfirmimin e relacionit mes filozorese dhe sheriatit", Tetova, 1993.
34. Dr. Ismail R. Faruki. "Islamizimi i diturise", Skopje, 1992.
35. Dr. Jusuf Ramiq. "Shkaqet e shpalljes se Kur'ani Kerimit". Skopje, 1990.
36. "Kur'ani i madhnueshem- Translation and commentary.", Tirana, 1994.
37. Muhamet Zekeria Khani. "Kurani i shenjte" Arabic-Albanian, Islamabad, 1990.
38. Dr. Maurice Bucaille. "Kur'ani dhe shkenca moderne". Tirana, 1992.
39. Dr. Muhamed Hamidullah. "Hyrje ne Islam". Tirana, 1993.
40. Muhamed El Hasnij. "Zubdul itkan fi ulumil Kur'an" Jidah, 1986.
41. Naim Frasheri. "Qerbelaja". Prishtina 1978.
42. Naim Frasheri. " Fletore e Bektashinjevet". Prishtina, 1978.
43. Rozhe Garod. "Gjallerimi Islamik" Gjakove, 1991.
44. Ramiz Zekaj. "Rregulla mbi te lexuarin e Kur'anit". Medine, 1992.
45. R.M. della Rocca. "Kombi dhe feja ne shqiperi" (1920-1944), Tirana, 1994.
46. Ramiz Zekaj. "Drite e Zemres", Medine, 1991.
47. Refo Capari. "Fjale te fshehura".
48. "Sureja e Jasines se madherueshme..." Shkodra (without the date of publication).
49. Prof. Sejjid Kutub. "In the shde of the Qur'an", " Nen hijen e Kur'anit", London, 1979.
50. Seyyid Abul Aela Maududi. " Feja Islame". Mich. USA, 1985.
51. Prof. Sejjid Kutub. "Jasini", Skopje, 1994.
52. Sami Frasheri. "Perhapja e Islamizimit", Prizren, 1990.
53.. Lylejman Osmani, "Sunneti baze e Sheriatit", Gjilan, 1996.
54. H. Sherif Ahmeti, "Kur'ani- translation and commentary", Prishtina, 1988.
55. Shrif Putra " Disa te verteta morale", Tirana, 1938.
56. "Udhe Mahmmedane", (Tarikati Muhammedije). Translated by H. I. Dalliut. Republished by Albanian-American Islamic Center. New York and New Jersey, 1993.
57. H. V. Dibra. " C'urdheron Kur'ani?" Mich. USA, 1991.
58. I. Vehbi Ismaili. " Drite nga Kur'ani". Mich. USA, 1991.
59. Vehbi Ismail Gavoci. " Shhtyllat e Islamit ose si e pse?" Dubai, 1992.
60. Imam Vehbi Ismaili. " Drite nga Kur'ani" ( Dhjete porosi hyjnore), Mich. USA,1992.
61. Imam Vehbi Ismaili. "Bilali-Muezini i Profetit A.S.". Mich. USA, 1988.
62. Imam Vehbi Ismaili. " Kerkuesi i se vertetes- Selman-el-Farisi" (prophet's p.u.b.h.
companion), Mich. USA, 1989.
63. Vexhi Demiraj "Filozofet Muslimane", Prizren, 1990.
64. Imam Vehbi Ismaili. " Studime Islame" Mich. USA. 1988.
6. Vepra mbi jeten e Muhamedit (p.u.b.h.)
1. Abdet-Tev-Vab Jusuf. "Muhammedi (in twenty stories), Mich. USA. 1990.
2. Albanian Islamic Libray. No: Muhamed Ali, M. A. LL. B. " Muhamedi Profeti i Islamizmes", Mich. USA. 1986.
3. Albanian Islamic Library, No. 12 Teofik El- Hakim. " Muhamedi, Profet njeri", Mich. USA, 1987.
4. Halid Muhammed Halid " Humaniteti i Mahmmedit p.u.b