Staff Directory

Mohd. Rushdi Bin Hj. Abu Bakar

Academic Qualification

  • Chemical Engineering - Doctor of Philosophy, University of Loughborough
  • Pharmaceutical Technology - Masters Degree, University of London
  • Environmental Chemical Engineering - Bachelor Degree, University of Leeds

Mohd. Rushdi Bin Hj. Abu Bakar (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)

Associate Professor
IIUM Kuantan Campus


Expert Profile

Dr. Mohd Rushdi started his career as a research officer at the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Natural Resources, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in 1997. He then work in the manufacturing and service industries before joining the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) as an Assistant Lecturer at the Department of Science in Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering in 2002. After the completion of his M.Sc. in 2005, he was appointed as a lecturer at the Department of Biotechnology Engineering. He later went for his Ph.D. at Loughborough University in 2007 where his Ph.D. project focused on the experimental investigation of pharmaceutical crystallisation processes to develop better control in the production of pharmaceutical compounds. Currently, he is an Associate Professor at the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy. He is also attached to IKOP Pharma, a subsidiary of IIUM Holdings that focuses on the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, as the Head of Engineering.

Area of Specialisation

  • Engineering Tech ~ Engineering And Technology ~ Chemical Engineering ~ Industrial Chemical Production - Downstream processing of pharmaceuticals (e.g. granulation, drying, mixing).
  • Engineering Tech ~ Engineering And Technology ~ Chemical Engineering ~ Separation Process - Pharmaceutical and industrial crystallisation.
  • Medical And Health ~ Medical And Health Sciences ~ Phamaceutical Industry ~ Other Pharmaceutical Industry n.e.c. - Industrial pharmacy; Good Manufacturing Practices.
  • Engineering Tech ~ Engineering And Technology ~ Chemical Engineering ~ Chemical/ Physical Modification - Impact of particle engineering unit operations (e.g. crystallisation, milling) on crystal properties; Effects of crystal properties on unit operations (e.g. granuation, drying); Solid-state characterisation techniques.
  • Engineering Tech ~ Engineering And Technology ~ Chemical Engineering ~ Process Control - Process Analytical Technology (PAT) assisted investigation of crystallisation processes

Professional Membership

  • 2009 - 2019: Member of Profesional Body / Association: (Associate member), Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE), United Kingdom
  • 2018 - 2023: Member of Profesional Body / Association: (Academic member), International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering
  • 2019 - 2022: Member of Profesional Body / Association: (Professional Technologist), Lembaga Teknologis Malaysia

Teaching Responsibilities

DOSAGE DESIGN I 2019/2020 2018/2019 2017/2018 2016/2017 2015/2016 2014/2015 2013/2014 2012/2013 2011/2012
INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY 2021/2022 2020/2021 2019/2020 2018/2019 2017/2018 2016/2017 2015/2016 2014/2015 2013/2014
PHARMACEUTICS I : PHYSICOCHEMICAL PRINCIPLES 2022/2023 2021/2022 2020/2021 2019/2020
PHARMACEUTICS II : DISPERSE SYSTEMS 2022/2023 2021/2022 2020/2021
PHYSICAL PHARMACY 1 2018/2019 2017/2018 2016/2017 2012/2013
PHYSICAL PHARMACY II 2019/2020 2018/2019 2017/2018 2016/2017 2015/2016 2014/2015 2013/2014 2012/2013
RESEARCH PROJECT 1 2020/2021 2019/2020 2017/2018 2016/2017 2015/2016 2014/2015 2013/2014
RESEARCH PROJECT 2 2017/2018 2016/2017
RESEARCH PROJECT-LITERATURE SEARCH 2020/2021 2019/2020 2018/2019 2016/2017 2015/2016 2012/2013
SEMINAR 2005/2006
SEMINAR I 2010/2011
STERILE PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS 2022/2023 2021/2022 2020/2021
STERILIZATION AND ASEPTIC TECHNOLOGY 2019/2020 2018/2019 2017/2018 2016/2017
THERMODYNAMICS 2006/2007 2005/2006

Research Projects

2018 - 2022 Black Seed Oil Alginate Beads
2016 - 2017 Development and Scale-Up Production of Nutritional Product
2016 - 2017 Cosmetic Production and Good Manufacturing Practices
2014 - 2017 Enhancement of Drug Loading with Dry Surface Coated Active Ingredient in Direct Compression: An Approach to Prepare Tablet in a Time Saving Cost Effective Manner
2013 - 2017 Fusion Prophetic Medicine (Honey) and Contemporary Medicine (Paracetamol) as a Future Greener Pharmaceutical
2013 - 2016 Identification of Critical Elements for the Manufacturing of Halal Pharmaceuticals
2012 - 2016 Application of Process Analytical Technology Based Approaches for the Control of Crystal Properties of Mafenamic Acid for Efficient Downstream Operations and Effective Therapeutic Perfomance
2012 - 2016 Investigation of The Crystallization and Polymorphism of Mefenamic Acid and Gliclazide
2011 - 2021 Investigation of the Efficient Cleaning Procedure for a GMP-Compliant Pharmaceutical Pilot Plant
2011 - 2021 Formulation and Development of Amlodipine Besylate 5mg and 10mg Tablets and Scale-up from Laboratory to Pilot Scale
2011 - 2021 Investigation of HVAC System Performance at a GMP-Compliant Pharmaceutical Pilot Plant for Sustainable Energy Utilization
2011 - 2016 Development of Practical Approaches for the Control of Crystal Properties of Mefenamic Acid, Glicazide, Amlodipine and Cetirizine for Efficient Downstream Operations and Effective Therapeutic Performance
2011 - 2017 Investigation of Factors Affecting Water Purification System Efficiency and Performance at the Pharmaceutical Pilot Plant, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
2010 - 2016 Screening for the Most Cost Effective and Efficient Utilization of Herbal Pharmaceutical Industrial Waste
2022 - Present Effect of co-crystallization parameters on aqueous solubility, in vitro dissolution and antioxidant activity of alpha-mangostin co-crystals
2022 - Present Molecular Interaction Prediction of Polymorphic Form and Crystal Morphology of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Grown in Green Solvent for Sustainable Crystallisation Process
2021 - Present Encapsulation of Malaysian Patin Oil-loaded Alginate Microbeads Prototype for Supporting Children's Growth
2021 - Present Investigation on Formulation Parameters of Essential Oil Nanoemulgel as a Potential Therapeutics for Topical Skin Cancer
2019 - Present Prototype development of process analytical technology (PAT) continuous production line for Nigella sativa oil (NSO)-alginate microparticles
2017 - Present Investigation the Effect of Scented Flower Enfleurage Using Different Lipophilic Carriers on Yield and Phytochemical Constituents of the Produced Essential Oils
2016 - Present Optimizing of asiaticoside purification from Centella asiatica extract and development of asiaticoside gel formulation for topical application
2016 - Present Integrated Green Assessment of Poultry Waste Input-Output in Malaysia Farming Industry
2014 - Present Palm-olein based Betamethaone 17-valerate cream for skin disease

Award & Recognition

25 Jun, 2019 Silver Medal International Invention & Innovation in Dentistry Exhibition 2019 - Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA International
23 Feb, 2019 Bronze Medal Malaysia Technology Expo 2019 - Others National
23 Feb, 2019 Silver Medal Malaysia Technology Expo 2019 - Others National



2022 The role of solvent hydroxyl functional groups on the interaction energy and growth of form I paracetamol crystal facets. Organic Process Research & Development, 26 (12) pp. 3226-3235
2021 Impacts of various mixing approaches towards black seed oil-alginate emulsion attributes. Materials Express, 11 (10) pp. 1746-1751
2021 Investigation of struvite crystals formed in palm oil mill effluent anaerobic digester. Heliyon, 7 (1) pp. 1-8
2019 Evaluation of solvents’ effect on solubility, intermolecular interaction energies and habit of ascorbic acid crystals. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 23 (2) pp. 239-248
2019 Evaluation of the intermolecular interactions and polymorphism of mefenamic acid crystals in N,N-dimethyl formamide solution: a molecular dynamics simulation and experimental study. Comptes Rendus Chimie, () pp.
2019 Prediction of mefenamic acid solubility and molecular interaction energies in different classes of organic solvents and water. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 58 (2) pp. 762-770
2018 Formation of fine and encapsulated mefenamic acid form I particles for dissolution improvement via electrospray method. Particulate Science and Technology, 36 (3) pp. 298-307
2018 Granulation of mefenamic acid and poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) using pressure swing granulation (psg) technique in fluidized bed [Pembentukan granul berasaskan asid mefenamik dan polietilena glikol (PEG) menggunakan teknik pengranulan tekanan terayun dalam turus terbendalir]. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 22 (2) pp. 318-325
2018 Scale deposits from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and various other industries: A developmental review. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 30 (3) pp. 361-365
2017 Effect of seed loading and temperature of seeding on carbamazepine-caccharin co-crystal. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 10 (6) pp. 1-5
2017 Investigating the role of molecular interactions in polymorphism of mefenamic acid in ethyl acetate solution. Jurnal Teknologi, 79 (5-3) pp. 21-27
2017 Kinetics and nucleation mechanism of carbamazepine–saccharin co-crystals in ethanol solution. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 130 (3) pp. 1663-1669
2017 Nucleation events and metastable zone width of mefenamic acid polymorph in ethyl acetate. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12 (4) pp. 1031-1039
2016 Molecular recognition and solubility of mefenamic acid in water. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 28 (4) pp. 853-858
2014 Particle formation and micronization using non-conventional techniques- review. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 86 (2014) pp. 47-52
2013 Solubility and dissolution thermodynamic data of mefenamic acid crystals in different classes of Organic solvents . Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 58 () pp. 3447-3452
2013 Structures and hydrogen bonding recognition of mefenamic acid form I crystals in mefenamic acid/ethanol solution. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 4 (3) pp. 124-128
2011 Investigation of the riddle of sulfathiazole polymorphism. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 414 () pp. 86-103
2011 Micro-sized particle production of Momordica Sp extract using spray dryer. IIUM Engineering Journal, 12 (4) pp. 73-82
2010 A combined approach of differential scanning calorimetry and hot-stage microscopy with image analysis in the investigation of sulfathiazole polymorphism. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 99 (2) pp. 609-619
2010 Investigation of the effect of temperature cycling on surface features of sulfathiazole crystals during seeded batch cooling crystallization. Crystal Growth & Design, 10 (9) pp. 3892-3900
2009 Seeded batch cooling crystallization with temperature cycling for the control of size uniformity and polymorphic purity of sulfathiazole crystals. Organic Process Research & Development, 13 (6) pp. 1343-1356
2009 The impact of direct nucleation control on crystal size distribution in pharmaceutical crystallization processes. Crystal Growth & Design, 9 (3) pp. 1378-1384
Conference or Workshop Item

2020 Effect of ultrasonic waves on polymorphism and crystal size distributions of mefenamic acid. In: 5th International Conference of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology, ICCEIB 2020,
2019 Effects of different mixing methods towards black seed oil-alginate emulsion characteristics.. In: International Conference on Pharmaceutical Research and Pharmacy Practice cum 14th IIUM-MPS Pharmacy Scientific Conference (ICPRP 2019),
2018 Effect of polymer composition on the physiochemical properties of microencapsulated fish oil using spray drying. In: 4th International Pharmaceutical Research Conference 2018,
2018 Effects of solvents on polymorphism and shape of mefenamic acid crystals. In: Malaysia Technical Universities Conference on Engineering and Technology (MUCET 2017).,
2018 Mitigation of struvite formation in palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment facilities. In: Lca Food 2018 In Conjunction with Lca Agri Food Asia 2018 and ICGSI 2018,
2018 Physicochemical characteristics of struvite crystals formed in palm oil mill effluent anaerobic digester. In: 5th International Conference on Biotechnology Engineering (ICBioE 2018),
2017 Effect of cooling rates on shape and crystal size distributions of mefenamic acid polymorph in ethyl acetate. In: The 2nd International Conference on Materials Engineering and Nanotechnology (ICMEN2017),
2016 Characteristic study of palm oil mill effluent crystals. In: 2016 National Seminar on Palm Oil Milling, Refining, Environment and Quality (POMREQ),
2014 Nanoparticle preparation of Mefenamic acid by electrospray drying. In: 5th Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Symposium (NNS2013),
2014 Solubility prediction of L-ascorbic acid by using COSMO-RS. In: International Conference in Industrial Pharmacy 2014,
Book Section

2019 AVCO Mouthwash. In: IM Books Everything, ISBN: 978-967-17200-0-4, pp. 35-39
2011 Direct nucleation control : a novel approach for the control of crystal size distribution in crystallization processes. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789670225869, pp. 190-198
2011 Polymorphic crystals and their characterisation. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180751, pp. 163-174
2011 Process analytical technology based monitoring and control of crystal properties in pharmaceutical crystallisation processes.. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180195, pp. 129-155