Staff Directory


Maisarah Bt Ali

Academic Qualification

  • Ph.D in Engineering - Doctor of Philosophy, University of Osaka
  • Master in Engineering - Masters Degree, University of Osaka
  • Bachelor in Civil Engineering - Bachelor Degree, University of Strathclyde
  • Diploma in Civil Engineering - Diploma, Sekolah Menengah Convent Bukit Nanas, Kuala Lumpur

Maisarah Bt Ali (Prof. Dr.)

Professor
IIUM Gombak Campus

KULLIYYAH OF ENGINEERING

Other's position:

Head of Department, Kulliyyah of Engineering


maisarah@iium.edu.my
NA


Area of Specialisation


  • Engineering Tech ~ Applied Sciences And Technologies ~ Architecture ~ Building Design - concrete technology
  • Economics, Business And Management ~ Economics, Business And Management ~ Finance ~ Wealth Management (Including Financial Planning, Asset Accumulation and Management) - infrastructure asset management
  • Engineering Tech ~ Applied Sciences And Technologies ~ Engineering Materials ~ Concrete - Assessment, repair and rehabilitation of concrete structures
  • Engineering Tech ~ Applied Sciences And Technologies ~ Construction and Project Management ~ Building Economics - Building maintenace, building performance, sustainable and healty building, building technology
  • Engineering Tech ~ Applied Sciences And Technologies ~ Construction and Project Management ~ Building Management and Services of Construction (Including of Commercial Building Management Services, Housing Management Services, Industrial Building Management Services, Industrialised Building/ Construction System (IBS/ICS), Structural Products (Wall/Floor Tiles, Roofing Tiles) - construction project management,


Professional Membership


  • Member of Profesional Body / Association, Road Association Engineering Malaysia
  • Member of Profesional Body / Association, Road Association Engineering Malaysia
  • Member of Profesional Body / Association, American Concrete Institute KL Chapter
  • Member of Profesional Body / Association, Institute Of Engineers Malaysia


Teaching Responsibilities


BUILDING FACILITY MANAGEMENT 2020/2021 2019/2020 2018/2019
CIVIL ENGINEERING DESIGN LAB 2018/2019
ELECTIVE I-CIVIL ENGINEERING DESIGN LAB 2019/2020 2021/2022 2020/2021
FINAL YEAR PROJECT I 2020/2021
FINAL YEAR PROJECT II 2020/2021
INTERGRATED DESIGN PROJECT 2020/2021 2018/2019 2019/2020 2021/2022


Research Projects


Completed
2016 - 2016 Malaysian Carbon Reduction and Environmental Sustainability Tool (MYCREST) Assessor Refreshment Course
2016 - 2017 Kajian Berkenaan Pelaksanaan Penilaian Mycrest Secara Mandatori Untuk Projek-Projek Bernilai RM100 Juta Dan Ke Atas
2016 - 2019 Tool for Engineering Laboratory Assessment in Malaysian Universities
2015 - 2015 Perkhidmatan "Editing 4 Buah Buku Malaysian Carbon Reduction and Environmental Sustainability Tool (MyCREST) Setelah Pelaksanaan Proof Reading"
2015 - 2019 The Preparation of Feasibility Study for the Establishment of an International Islamic University in Afghanistan
2013 - 2018 Virtual Kuala Lumpur Mosque Content Using Mixed Interactive Mobile Applications Platform
2012 - 2015 Numerical Model and Simulation of Thermal Characteristics in Hospitals and Its Impact to the Mould Growth, Concentration and Distribution
2012 - 2016 New Method of Quantity Measurement for Heritage Conservation Works
2010 - 2014 A New Method for Assessing Fire Risk of Heritage Building
2010 - 2011 Functionalities of 4D Virtual Construction Simulation Tool in Current Practices of Project Control in Malaysia.
2008 - 2012 Statistical Analysis of Cyclic Performance of Fire Resistant Doorset in Shopping Centre in Malaysia
2008 - 2013 Numerical Modeling of Thermal Load Characteristic of the Data Centre Room and Equipment and Optimization of the Performance of Cooling System
2007 - 2011 Optimization of the Cooling Systems for Data Centres for the Tropical Environments
2007 - 2008 An Assessment of Recycled and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content in Interior Construction Materials for Achieving Green Building in Malaysia
2006 - 2009 Integration of Environmental Simulation and Analysis in A Virtual Reality Framework: The Assessment of Urban Masterplan And Outdoor Spaces Based On Environmental Performance in A 3D Real-Time Visualisation In Hot, Humid And Hot, Arid Climates
2006 - 2014 A Thermal Performance Analysis and Storage Potential Study of A Proposed Waste Material Integrated Heat Sink Process in Ground Floor Slab and OutDoor Pavement For Residences In Malaysia
2005 - 2010 An Assessment of The Zero Energy House - A Comparison of Energy Conservation Strategies and Bioclimatic Performances in The Temperate and Tropical Context
2004 - 2015 Study on the Influential Factors that Impart Efficient Response to the Structural Reliability and Sustainability
On-Going
2019 - Present Investigation on the Strength Improvement and Microstructure Analysis of Concrete Incorporated Manufactured Sand (M Sand) As Fine Aggregate Replacement
2019 - Present Study on Rainfall Intensity Duration Threshold Induced Landslides Occurrence in Peninsular Malaysia
2016 - Present Characterization of Malay Architectural Components through BIM-Based Modelling and Semantic Enrichment for Urban Buildings
2016 - Present Enhancing Quality Results of Engineering Statics in IHL
2008 - Present Environmental Analysis and Virtual Reality Research Unit (EAVRRU)


Publications


Article

2020 3D geospatial technique in analysing the Malay heritage building structures. Planning Malaysia, 18 (2) pp. 85-96
2020 A generic process of documentation and data management for historical Malay architecture using BIM. Planning Malaysia Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 18 (2) pp. 73-84
2020 Recreating historical Malay architecture with BIM process. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 7 (2) pp. 79-89
2020 The attributes of 'Papan Meleh'-roof eaves decoration in Baitul Rahmah (Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia) with the historic building information modelling (HBIM) application. Planning Malaysia, 18 (2) pp. 181-192
2020 The attributes of ‘Papan Meleh’ - roof eaves decoration in Baitul Rahmah (Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia) with the historic building information modelling (HBIM) application. Planning Malaysia, 18 (2) pp. 181-192
2020 The impact of manufactured sand (M-Sand) as partially and fully replacement of fine aggregate in concrete. Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems Journal, 5 (1) pp. 302-306
2020 The recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles waste as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete. TEST Engineering & Management magazine, 83 (May-June 2020) pp. 1093-1096
2020 The relation of compression strength with modulus of rupture and UPV of concrete containing M sand as fine aggregate. Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems Journal (ASTESJ), 5 (5) pp. 39-46
2019 BIM backed decision support system in the management of heritage building. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 6 (2) pp. 71-79
2019 Polyethylene Terehthalate (PET) bottles waste as fine aggregate in concrete. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), 8 (6S4) pp. 1177-1180
2019 Spatial analysis on Malay buildings for categorization of Malay historic BIM library. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 11 (2) pp. 1-17
2019 The three layerings of Malay aristocratic ornamentations: survival of semantic categories amidst stylistic changes. JOURNAL OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT, TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING, 6 () pp. 1-12
2018 Analysis by means of surface response to chemical composition and pozzolanic reactivity of ultrafine treated rice husk ash (UFTRHA) as cementing additive material. International Journal of Engineering and Technology(UAE), 7 (4) pp. 342-346
2018 Exploring the influence of architectural elements of Balai Besar Kedah on the Malay traditional architecture. e-Bangi, 16 (8) pp. 1-15
2018 Heritage building preservation through building information modelling: reviving cultural values through level of development exploration. Planning Malaysia Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 16 (2) pp. 62 -72
2018 Heritage building preservation through building information modelling: reviving cultural values through level of development exploration. Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 16 (2) pp. 62-72
2018 Heritage building preservation through building information modellling: reviving cultural values through level of development exploration. Planning Malaysia Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 16 (2) pp. 62-72
2018 Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) for Malaysian construction industry. Planning Malaysia: Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 16 (3) pp. 332-343
2018 Physicochemical properties and pozzolanic performance of ultrafine treated rice husk ash (uftrha) as additive in concrete. Planning Malaysia : Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 16 (2) pp. 285-292
2017 CFD investigation of indoor hygrothermal and airflow profile in academic research storage room: effect of lma on thermohygric balance and mould growth. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12 (10) pp. 3080-3087
2017 CFD investigation of indoor hygrothermal performance in academic research storage room: Measurement and validation. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12 (10) pp. 3130-3136
2017 Exploring methods of quantity measurement for heritage conservation works. Advanced Science Letters, 23 (7) pp. 6277-6280
2017 Indoor mould growth prediction using coupled computational fluid dynamics and mould growth model. Building Simulation, 10 (4) pp. 551-562
2017 Life cycle cost and performance assessment: comparison between reconstruction and cold-in-place recycling (CIPR) methods. Malaysian Construction Research Journal (MCRJ), 21 (1) pp. 17-32
2016 Effect of pretreatment soaking duration to characteristic of ultrafine treated rice husk ash (UFTRHA) as supplementary cementing material (SCM) . ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11 (12) pp. 7596-7600
2016 Hygrothermal performance of building envelopes in the tropics under operative conditions: condensation and mould growth risk appraisal . Jurnal Teknologi, 78 (5) pp. 271-279
2015 Characterization, microstructure properties and impurities removal of treated rice husk ash (TRHA) as supplementary cementing material (SCM) in concrete using hydrochloric acid pretreatment process. Journal of Applied Science and Agriculture, 10 (3) pp. 1-4
2015 Effect of calcium carbonate replacement on workability and mechanical strength of Portland cement concrete . Advanced Materials Research, 1115 () pp. 137-141
2015 Effect of polycarboxylate ether (PCE) addition to physical and mechanical characteristics of high performance concrete . Advanced Materials Research, 1115 () pp. 146-149
2015 Effect of rice husk ash (RHA) on physical property and mechanical strength of concrete . Advanced Materials Research, 1115 () pp. 150-155
2015 Effect of tropical climate condition to compressive strength and microstructure properties of high performance fiber reinforced reinforced concrete (HPFRC). Advanced Materials Research, 1115 () pp. 182-187
2015 Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Fibre Composite Incorporating Pulverized Fuel Ash. Advanced Materials Research, 1115 () pp. 270-274
2015 Physical and mechanical properties of concrete incorporating manufactured sand. Advanced Materials Research , 1115 () pp. 160-165
2015 Pozzolanic reaction mechanism of rice husk ash in concrete – a review. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 773-774 () pp. 1143-1147
2012 Construction quality of school buildings using the Industrialised Building System (IBS). Malaysian Construction Research Journal, 11 (2) pp. 21-35
2012 Optimization of a cooling system in data centers. Wulfenia Journal, 19 (9) pp. 196-214
2010 A simulation method to find the optimal design of photovoltaic home system in Malaysia, case study: a building integrated photovoltaic in Putra Jaya. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences, 5 (2) pp. 117-121
2009 A simulation method to find the optimal design of photovoltaic home system in Malaysia, case study: a building integrated photovoltaic in Putra Jaya. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 53 () pp. 694-698
2009 Assessment of mould growth on building materials using spatial and frequency domain analysis techniques. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security (IJCSNS), 9 (7) pp. 154-167
2009 Audit assessment of the facilities maintenance management in a public hospital in Malaysia. Journal of Facilities Management, 7 (2) pp. 142 -158
2007 Impact of Wetland urbanization in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. International Journal of Energy and Environment , 1 (2) pp. 127-132
2007 Protection of natural Wetland within development area: a case study of Tasik Melati. International Journal of Energy and Environment, 1 (2) pp. 122-126
1999 Effect of fatigue loading on bonding shear strength at the interface between two layers concrete. Journal of Structural Engineering, 45A () pp. 1157--1164
Conference or Workshop Item

2020 Correlation between slump, VeBe and compaction factor of concrete containing shredded PET bottles, manufactured sand (M-sand) and river sand as fine aggregate. In: 5th International Conference on Advanced Technology and Applied Sciences and 6th Malaysia Japan Joint International Conference (ICETAS MJJIC 2020),
2019 A customized classification with codification of Malay architectural heritage:the Malay Palatial facades. In: Innovation And Technology Exposition InTEX19,
2019 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles waste as fine aggregate in concrete - a review. In: International Conference on Sustainable Urban Development Resource Conservation and Food Security,
2019 Spatial analysis on Malay buildings for categorization of Malay historic BIM library. In: 4th International Conference-Workshop on Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design (ICWSAUD) 2019,
2019 The application of CAP-SASW method in determination of sub-surface profile of flexible taxiway in the airport. In: 10th Malaysian Road Conference & Exhibition 2018,
2019 The effect of recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles waste as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete. In: 4th International Conference on Advances in Manufacturing and Materials Engineering (ICAMME) 2019,
2019 The three layerings of Malay Aristocratic ornamentations: survival of semantic categories amidst stylistic changes. In: The 6th Putrajaya International Built Environment, Technology and Engineering Conference (PIBEC 6) 2019,
2018 Analysis by means of surface response to chemical composition and pozzolanic reactivity of Ultrafine Treated Rice Husk Ash (UFTRHA) as cementing additive material. In: International Graduate Conference on Energy, Engineering & Technology 2018 (iGRAD2018),
2018 Compositional-cultural evolutions as variations of Malay architectural and constructional vocabulary- a review. In: International Conference on Language, Culture and Society 2018 (2018),
2018 Traditional Malay building as-built drawings reproduction using building information modelling. In: ASEAN Postgraduate Conference 2018,
2016 Evoking Malaysian architecture cultural identity through development of parametric bim. In: 16th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality,
2016 Experimental investigation of ventilation efficiency in a dentistry surgical room. In: The 4th International Building Control Conference 2016 (IBCC 2016),
2016 Exploring methods of quantity measurement for heritage conservation works. In: International Conference on Architecture & Built Environment (ICABE 2016),
2016 Milling time influence of ultrafine treated rice husk ash to pozzolanic reactivity in portlandite. In: 3rd International Conference on Civil, offshore and Environmental Engineering, ICCOEE 2016; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia,
2016 Moisture condensation on building envelopes in differential ventilated spaces in the tropics: quantitative assessment of influencing factors. In: The 4th International Building Control Conference 2016 (IBCC 2016),
2016 The effect of incineration temperature to the chemical and physical properties of Ultrafine Treated Rice Husk Ash (UFTRHA) as Supplementary Cementing Material (SCM). In: The 4th International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials (ICPEAM 2016),
2015 An improved method to evaluate indoor microclimatic data: case study of a book archive in a hot and humid climate. In: The 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate,
2015 CFD investigation of indoor hygrothermal performance in academic research storage room: measurement and validation. In: International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics in Research and Industry 2015,
2015 Comparative study of life cycle cost and pavement performance on road rehabilitation methods. In: 14th Management in Construction Research's Association (MiCRA) Annual Conference and General Meeting,
2015 Hygrothermal performance of building envelopes in the tropics under operative conditions: condensation and mould growth risk appraisal. In: International Conference On Science, Engineering, Built Environment And Social Science (ICSEBS 2015),
2015 Indoor microbial growth prediction using coupled computational fluid dynamics and microbial growth models. In: The 13th Asia Pacific Conference on the Built Environment,
2015 Ventilation performance assessment of an educational building in a hot and humid climate. In: International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference 2014,
2014 An improved method to evaluate indoor microclimatic data: case study of a book archive in a hot and humid climate. In: International Research, Invention and Innovation Exhibition 2014 (IRIIE2014),
2014 Effect of calcium carbonate replacement on workability and mechanical strength of portland cement concrete. In: International Conference on Advances in Manufacturing and Materials Engineering 2014 (ICAMME 2014) 23-25 September 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,
2014 Effect of rice husk ash (RHA) on physical property and mechanical strength of concrete. In: 2nd International Conference on Advances in Manufacturing and Materials Engineering 2014 (ICAMME 2014),
2014 Effect of tropical climate condition to compressive strength and microstructure properties of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC). In: International Conference on Advances in Manufacturing and Materials Engineering 2014 (ICAMME 2014),
2014 Evaluating life cycle cost and performance comparison between cold in place recycling and reconstruction method. In: Management Construction Researchers' Association Annual Conference and General Meeting (MiCRA 2014),
2014 Influence of indoor microclimate distribution on mould infestation in a university library. In: International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference (InCIEC2014),
2014 Mechanical properties of bamboo fibre composite incorporating pulverized fuel ash. In: 2nd International Conference on Advances in Manufacturing and Materials Engineering 2014 (ICAMME 2014),
2014 Pozzolanic reaction mechanism of rice husk ash in concrete: a review. In: International Integrated Engineering Summit (IIES 2014),
2013 Fire risk assessment of heritage building - perspectives of building stakeholders. In: IRIIE 2013,
2013 Fire risk assessment of heritage building: the influence of regulatory body and restorer’s background on the assessment criteria. In: Seminar Hasil Penyelidikan Sektor Pengajian Tinggi Kementerian Pendidikan 2013,
2013 Parametric study of earth-to-air heat exchanger in Malaysian climate. In: The Asian Conference on Sustainability, Energy and the Environment 2013,
2012 Acceptability of Malaysian construction practitioners in adopting 4D. In: First International Conference on Islamic Built Environment,
2012 Malaysian labour productivity for reinforced concrete structural frame: a case study . In: Malaysian Science Technology Congress,
2012 Partnering between main contractors and sub-contractors in construction projects. In: first International Conference on Islamic Built Environment,
2012 Reliving the traditional masjid architecture in contemporary world : the case of Masjid Al Falah - KAED Community Project. In: IRIIE 2012,
2011 The acceptability of four dimension (4D) virtual construction in Malaysia. In: Intenational Conference on Universal Design in Built Enviroment,
2010 Assessment of mould growth in selected hospital : Air conditioning system aspect. In: 30th International Seminar For Public Health Group of the Union of International Architects,
2010 Investigate the influential factors that impart efficient responses to the structual reliability and sustainability. In: IIUM Research, Innovation & Invention Exhibition (IRIIE 2010),
2010 User-centered design and evaluation of e-heritage: a virtual reality prototype for learning architectural heritage in informal education. In: 10th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality (CONVR 2010),
2009 A new tool for assessment of mould growth on building materials. In: 3rd International Conference on Modeling, Simulation, and Applied Optimization (ICMSAO 2009),
2009 Environmental impacts of ecotourism on mangrove: case study of Kuala Selangor Nature Park. In: 6th Workshop on Sosial Capital and Development Trends in the Japanese and Swedish Countryside,
2009 Optimization of cooling systems in data centre by computational fluid dynamics model and simulation. In: Conference on Innovative Technologies in Intelligent Systems and Industrial Applications (CITISIA 2009) ,
2008 Integrating a computational fluid dynamics simulation and visualization with a 3D virtual walk through - a case study of Putrajaya . In: 8th International Conference on Construction Applications ov Virtual Reality (CONVR 2008),
2008 Integration of environmental performance in a virtual reality framework: case study of Putrajaya. In: 8th International Conference on Construction Applications ov Virtual Reality (CONVR 2008),
2008 Proposed research for optimization of the performance of cooling system in data center facilities. In: 7th Annual Conference Management in Construction Researchers’ Associations MICRA 2008,
2008 Sustainable residential low density urban development: integrating sustainable consciousness with commercial viability. In: 2008 World Sustainable Building Conference,
2007 Virtual reality in heritage studies and historical reconstruction through animation – A case study of a 16th century university complex in the Ottoman world. In: 7th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality: 0ctober 22-23, 2007,
2007 Virtual reality in heritage studies and historical reconstruction through animation – A case study of a 16th century university complex in the Ottoman world. In: 7th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality: ,
Book

2017 A study on life cycle of maintenance during the in use phases of flexible pavement from Pagoh to Machap. IIUM Press, International Islamic University Malaysia, ISBN: 978-967-418-641-8
2017 Security determinants in building automation system. IIUM Press, ISBN: 978-967-418-549-7
2011 Issues in facilities management and maintenance: a Malaysian perspective. IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180355
2008 Proceedings of 8th annual conference on construction application of virtual reality, Seri Pacific Hotel Kuala Lumpur, University Malaysia, 20-21st October 2008. Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design, IIUM, ISBN: 9789833142095
Book Section

2016 Passive design of two modern Masjids in Malaysia. In: Kulliyyah of Architecture & Al Bukhary Faundation, ISBN: 978-983-3142-33-0, pp. 237-247
2016 Passive design of two modern Masjids in Malaysia. In: Kulliyyah of Architecture & Al Bukhary Faundation, ISBN: 978-983-3142-33-0, pp. 237-247
2016 Reminiscing traditional masjid architecture in a contemporary world: The making of Masjid Al-Falah. In: Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, IIUM, ISBN: 978-983-3142-33-0, pp. 199-206
2015 Measurement of quality in building constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS) and conventional method. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 978-967-418-331-8, pp. 65-85
2015 Measurement of quality in building constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS) and conventional method. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 978-967-418-331-8, pp. 65-85
2011 Defects and deterioration of multi-storey building facades: issues and challenges. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180355, pp. 95-118
2011 Effectiveness of substation monitoring system. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180515, pp. 168-184
2011 Environmental impacts of ecotourism on mangrove : case study of Kuala Selangor Nature Park. In: Marginal Areas Research Group, ISBN: 9784907830076, pp. 101-111
2011 Environmental impacts of ecotourism on mangrove : case study of Kuala Selangor Nature Park. In: Marginal Areas Research Group, ISBN: 9784907830076, pp. 101-111
2011 Fire safety in buildings and fire door assesment: principles and standards. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180355, pp. 119-139
2011 Flat roof construction and systems principles and issues in maintenance management. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180355, pp. 77-94
2011 Managing construction projects through shared online calendar . In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180515, pp. 30-39
2011 Mould growth prevention in public hospitals: fundamentals, challenges and issues. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180355, pp. 1-39
2011 Risk management in construction projects in Malaysia . In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180515, pp. 40-54
2011 The acceptability of four dimension (4D) virtual construction in Malaysia . In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674180393, pp. 53-69
2010 Ministry of Energy, Water, Communication (MEWC) building Putrajaya, Malaysia. In: Routledge, ISBN: 9780415399326, pp. 295-303
2010 Ministry of Energy, Water, Communication (MEWC) building Putrajaya, Malaysia. In: Routledge, ISBN: 9780415399326, pp. 295-303
2006 Integrating a computational fluid dynamics simulation and visualization with a 3D virtual walkthrough - a case study of Putrajaya. In: Springer, ISBN: 978-3-540-36997-4, pp. 599-614