Staff Directory

Mushera Bibi Bt. Ambaras Khan

Academic Qualification

  • Ph.D in Legal Sciences - Doctor of Philosophy, Bond University
  • Masters in Comparative Law - Masters Degree, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Bachelor in Law - Bachelor Degree, International Islamic University Malaysia

Mushera Bibi Bt. Ambaras Khan (Prof. Dr.)

IIUM Gombak Campus


Expert Profile

Mushera Bibi Ambaras Khan is a Professor at the Civil Law Department, Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws. She graduated with an LLB (Honours) from IIUM in 1992 and obtained a Master of Comparative Laws from the same university the following year. She obtained her doctorate from Bond University, Australia in 2001. Her area of expertise is mainly on Corporations Law, in particular Takeovers and Mergers Law. She was the recipient of Endeavour Research Fellowship Award conferred by the DEST (Australia) in 2006. She has published articles and books locally and internationally. Her publications include her book, Directors Accountability and Insider Trading (2001; Butterworth) and A Guide to Malaysian Takeovers and Mergers Law (2013; Lexis Nexis). She has also contributed chapters for books, among others, on takeovers and mergers law in International Encyclopaedia for Corporations and Partnerships (Kluwer International) and on securities regulation in Malaysia in International Securities Regulation-Pacific Rim (Thomson Reuters).
She was appointed as a visiting scholar at the Victoria University Melbourne in 2006 and the Durham Law School in 2011. She is currently a member of Islam, Law and Modernity Institute, Durham University. She is also a member of the Cluster of Governance, Law and Public Management, National Professor Council. Prof Mushera was the editor of IIUM Law Journal and an executive member of the IIUM Audit Committee. She is also involved in mediation programme as a trainer for National Unity Department (under the Prime Minister's Department).

Area of Specialisation

  • Social Science ~ Social Science ~ Law ~ Corporations and Associations Law
  • Social Science ~ Social Science ~ Law ~ Commercial Law
  • Economics, Business And Management ~ Economics, Business And Management ~ Investment ~ Mergers and Acquisitions

Teaching Responsibilities

BUSINESS LAW FOR MANAGERS 2017/2018 2016/2017 2019/2020
COMMERCIAL LAW (FOR ENM) 1993/1994 2005/2006
COMPANY LAW (FOR ENM) 2005/2006 2014/2015 2008/2009 2012/2013 2007/2008
COMPANY LAW I 2009/2010 2007/2008 2010/2011 2005/2006 2008/2009 2002/2003 2003/2004 2012/2013 2015/2016 2004/2005 2011/2012 2001/2002 2013/2014
COMPANY LAW II 2011/2012 2007/2008 2010/2011 2008/2009 2009/2010
COMPANY TAKEOVERS 2019/2020 2018/2019 2017/2018 2016/2017 2012/2013 2009/2010 2007/2008 2014/2015 2003/2004 2005/2006 2008/2009 2004/2005 2013/2014 2015/2016
CONSUMER LAW 2020/2021 2021/2022
CORPORATE FINANCE LAW 2013/2014 2017/2018 2015/2016 2010/2011 2012/2013 2019/2020 2016/2017 2018/2019
LAW OF CONTRACT I 1993/1994 1996/1997 1994/1995 1995/1996
LAW OF CONTRACT II 1995/1996 1994/1995 1993/1994
LAW OF TORTS I 2002/2003 1995/1996 1996/1997 2001/2002 2019/2020 1994/1995 2003/2004 2018/2019 2017/2018 2020/2021
LAW OF TORTS II 2018/2019 2003/2004 1995/1996 2013/2014 2015/2016 2020/2021 2014/2015 2016/2017 2017/2018 1994/1995 2019/2020
MALAYSIAN BUSINESS LAW (FOR ENM) 2001/2002 2003/2004 2004/2005 2002/2003 2009/2010
TAKEOVER AND MERGER 2005/2006 2015/2016 2012/2013 2006/2007 2019/2020 2014/2015 2008/2009 2004/2005 2009/2010 2007/2008 2010/2011

Research Projects

2016 - 2020 Establishing an Effective Legal Framework for Corporate Mergers and Acquisitions in Malaysia Post TPP and AEC Era
2011 - 2014 Incorporating Merger Control Into Competition Law: An Analysis of Policy Consideration and the Legal Framework
2010 - 2011 Break-up Fees and Lock up Devices in Takeovers: Protection of Shareholders from and Islamic Perspective
2010 - 2013 Balancing the Interests of Shareholders and Employees in Merges and Acquisition Exercise: Suggestions for Reform with a Specific Reference to Islamic Principles
2008 - 2010 Horizontal and Vertical Mergers: The Law Post Fair Trade Regime
2006 - 2017 Corporate Accountability And Protection Of Whistleblowers
2004 - 2006 The Law of Company Takeovers and Mergers
2004 - 2004 The Requirement of Expert's Reports in Takeovers and Corporate Reconstructions
2021 - Present Framing a Comprehensive and Supportive Mental Health Policy and Strategy for Workplace: A Need Analysis from Patients' and Caregivers' Perspective
2009 - Present Corporate, Financial Law & Regulation Research Unit
2008 - Present Law of Social Obligations Unit (LOSOU)
2004 - Present Trade, Regulation and Policy Research Unit

Award & Recognition

01 Jul, 2006 Endeavour Award - DEST, Austraia National



2020 An analysis on the legal framework for disclosure in prospectus and the standard of disclosure in determining takeovers and mergers activities post IPO. International Journal of Business and Society, 21 (S1) pp. 19-31
2020 E-hailing services: antitrust implications of uber and grab`s merger in Southeast Asia. IIUM Law Journal, 28 (SI) pp. 373-394
2016 A glance at takeovers models in Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and the United Kingdom. Journal of Asian and African Social Science and Humanities, 2 (3) pp. 31-46
2014 Independent advice circular in corporate exercises: revisiting the law on fairness opinion . IIUM Law Journal, 22 (1) pp. 37-52
2014 The application of competition Act 2010 to mergers and acquisition in Malaysia. CLJ Law, 1 (xiii) pp. 1-24
2013 Efficient, informed and competitive market: The Malaysian regulation on takeovers and mergers of companies. The Law Review, () pp. 629-644
2012 Amendments to takeovers and mergers regulation in Malaysia. The Company Lawyer, 33 (1) pp. 19-20
2011 An insight into the latest developments on takeovers and mergers law in Malaysia. Company and Securities Law Journal, 29 (2) pp. 125-129
2011 Revisiting shareholders' protection in takeovers and mergers exercise. Malayan Law Journal, 4 () pp. lxxii-lxxx
2011 Shareholders’ protection through the enhanced independent advice circular. The Law Review, () pp. 17-34
2010 Allocation of control in hostile takeover: lessons from Cadbury. Current Law Journal, 8 () pp. xxv-xxxviii
2010 Takeover bids - should the board or shareholders decide?. Journal of Chartered Secretaries Australia Ltd, 62 (7) pp. 419-423
2010 Takeover bids - should the board or shareholders decide?. The Chartered Secretary Malaysia, () pp. 20-23
2010 Takeover bids - Should the board or shareholders decide?. CGQ Corporate Governance Quarterly, ( ) pp. 11-14
2010 Unacceptable circumstances in takeovers. Malayan Law Journal, 6 () pp. cli-clxiv
2009 A member's right to sue on behalf of a company: statutory derivative action under Section 181A Companies Act 1965 Mohd Shuaib Ishak v Celcom (M) Bhd. IIUM Law Journal, 17 (2) pp. 287-299
Conference or Workshop Item

2019 Psychiatric injury in the workplace: an analysis under the Islamic principles and the law of torts. In: 3rd International Medical Law Congress,
2017 Arbitration in domestic and international takeovers & mergers of companies. In: International Conference on Dispute Resolution 2017 - Modern Trends in Effective Dispute Resolution,
2017 Mergers and acquisition law: the need for harmonization in ASEAN. In: International Conference on Law and Society 6 (ICLAS 6),
2016 Community mediation in Malaysia: Training and accreditation of mediators in comparison with SCMC and IIAM. In: 5th International Conference on Law and Society (ICLAS V),
2015 Revisiting the law on occupiers liability: licensee and invitee. In: 4th International Conference on Law & Society (ICLAS IV) 2015 ,
2015 The regulation of takeovers and mergers in Malaysia. In: Conference on Comparative Takeover Regulation,
2014 Community mediation in Malaysia and IIAM community mediation service: A comparative study. In: International Conference on Law, Policy and Social Justice, 2014 (ICLAPS),
2014 Community mediation in Malaysia: challenges and prospects . In: International Conference on Law & Society III,
2014 Community mediation in Malaysia: the legal perspectives. In: International Conference on Law and Society III (ICLAS III),
2013 Competition law in Malaysia: issues and challenges in regulating market behaviour. In: 2013 IAITL Conference,
2013 Regulating firms' behaviour in the market under the competition law : Issues and challenges. In: International Conference on Law and Society I (ICLAS 1),

2017 The future of mandatory takeover offer: a case study on Malaysia. Springer Nature Singapore Pte. Ltd., ISBN: 978-981-10-8729-5
2013 A guide to Malaysian takeovers and mergers law. Sweet & Maxwell, Malaysia, ISBN: 9789670498171
2011 Corporations and partnerships in Malaysia. Kluwer Law International, ISBN: 9789041137876
Book Section

2018 Malaysia. In: Kluwer Law International BV, ISBN: 978-90-654-4946-7, pp. 13-184
2015 Securities Regulation in Malaysia. In: Thomson Reuters, ISBN: 9780379010176, pp.
2013 Competition law in Malaysia: issues and challenges in regulating market behaviour. In: International Association of IT lawyers (IAITL), ISBN: 9788799485437, pp. 317-329
2011 Takeovers and mergers: the new landscape for Malaysia. In: IIUM Press, ISBN: 9789674181093, pp. 141-151